C. Enzinger, F. Fazekas, P. M. Matthews, S. Ropele, H. Schmidt, S. Smith and R.
Risk factors for progression of brain atrophy in aging: Six-year follow-up of
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Risk factors for progression of brain
atrophy in aging
Six-year follow-up of normal subjects
C. Enzinger, MD; F. Fazekas, MD; P.M. Matthews, MD, DPhil, FRCP; S. Ropele, PhD; H. Schmidt, MD;
S. Smith, DPhil; and R. Schmidt, MD
Abstract—Objectives: To determine the rate of brain atrophy in neurologically asymptomatic elderly and to investigate
the impact of baseline variables including conventional cerebrovascular risk factors, APOE 4, and white matter hyperin-
tensity (WMH) on its progression. Methods: We assessed the brain parenchymal fraction at baseline and subsequent
annual brain volume changes over 6 years for 201 participants (F/M 96/105; 59.8 5.9 years) in the Austrian Stroke
Prevention Study from 1.5-T MRI scans using SIENA (structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy)/
SIENAX (an adaptation of SIENA for cross-sectional measurement)(www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). Hypertension, cardiac dis-
ease, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and regular alcohol intake were present in 64 (31.8%), 60 (29.9%), 5 (2.5%), 70 (39.3%),
and 40 (20.7%) subjects, respectively. Plasma levels of fasting glucose (93.7 18.6 mg/dL), glycated hemoglobin A (HbA1c;
5.6 0.7%), total cholesterol (228.3 40.3 mg/dL)