3D ICs; Used to Achieve Performance Improvements at Reduced Power and a Smaller
Three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D ICs) is a metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuit (IC)
manufactured by stacking or dyeing silicon wafers and connecting them horizontally or vertically.
3D ICs contain a 3D array of interconnected devices performing image processing, analog, digital,
and neural-network functions, either in combination or individually. Multiple layers of active
electronic components, in 3D ICs, are integrated vertically and horizontally on a single chip. They
can be manufactured using various processes such as wafer bonding, beam re-crystallization, and
solid-phase crystallization. They are widely used in military, consumer electronics, and
Moreover, 3D ICs offer efficiency, low power consumption, high performance, and increased
functionality in the electronic devices. A three-dimensional integrated circuit is a generic term that
describes the combination of electronic devices in a single package. 3D ICs are constructed with
electronic components in a manner that allows them to be easily incorporated into an analog or
digital device. Three-dimensional integrated circuit can incorporate several different types of
functional components, depending on the application needed. In addition, some types of integrated
circuits may be built on a chip substrate which is similar to a wafer.
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