UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE
41-01-01. (1-101) Short titles.
This title may be cited as the Uniform Commercial Code.
This chapter may be cited as Uniform Commercial Code - General Provisions.
41-01-02. (1-102) Scope of chapter. This chapter applies to a transaction to the extent
that the transaction is governed by another chapter of this title.
41-01-03. (1-103) Construction of title to promote the title's purposes and policies -
Applicability of supplemental principles of law.
This title must be liberally construed and applied to promote the title's underlying
purposes and policies, which are:
To simplify, clarify, and modernize the law governing commercial transactions;
To permit the continued expansion of commercial practices through custom,
usage, and agreement of the parties; and
To make uniform the law among the various jurisdictions.
Unless displaced by the particular provisions of this title, the principles of law and
equity, including the law merchant and the law relative to capacity to contract,
principal and agent, estoppel, fraud, misrepresentation, duress, coercion, mistake,
bankruptcy, and other validating or invalidating cause supplement this title.
(1-104) Construction against implied repeal. This title is a general act
intended as a unified coverage of its subject matter. A part of this title may not be deemed to be
impliedly repealed by subsequent legislation if such construction can reasonably be avoided.
41-01-05. (1-105) Severability. If any provision or clause of this title or its application to
any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or
applications of this title which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and
to this end the provisions of this title are severable.
41-01-06. (1-106) Use of singular and plural - Gender. In this title, unless the statutory
context otherwise requires:
1. Words in the singular number include the plural, and those in