Proc. Int'l Conf. on Robotics and Automation Taipei, Taiwan, Sep. 16-18, 2003, pp. 1253-1259.
A Telemanipulation System for Psychophysical Investigation of
B. J. Unger, R. L. Klatzky,z and R. L. Hollis
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
We report an experimental high-delity system for
making psychophysical measurements on human op-
erators performing real, virtual, and real-remote 3-
D haptic manipulation tasks. Operators interact
with task environments through six-degree-of-freedom
(6-DOF) Lorentz magnetic levitation haptic devices.
This arrangement allows the operator to exert and ex-
perience real, virtual, and real-remote forces/torques
using the same 6-DOF master device.
In the vir-
tual task scenario, interactions are rendered hapti-
cally. In the real task scenario, the manipulandum of
the haptic device interacts by direct mechanics with
a real environment. In the remote-real scenario, in-
teractions with a remote real task environment are
mediated through a 6-DOF Lorentz magnetic levita-
tion slave device carried by a 6-DOF robot arm. In
all three scenarios, visual feedback is provided by a
graphical display. The system records accurate posi-
tions/orientations and forces/torques as a function of
time. These records can be parsed automatically and
analyzed o-line to evaluate operator performance.
The study of haptic feedback for task performance in
real and virtual environments has received consider-
able attention in recent years. Many haptic displays
have been tested using various performance criteria.
The delity of a particular haptic display is of-
ten measured in terms of kinematic and dynamic de-
sign constraints such as force bandwidth and dynamic
range  or frequency response and steady state ac-
curacy. Other tests have concentrated on the op-
erator's ability to perform specied tasks. Analysis
of task performance has generally focused on binary
failure/completion criteria, accuracy  or comple-
tion time analysis . W