Designation: E 165 – 02
An American National Standard
Standard Test Method for
Liquid Penetrant Examination1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 165; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
1.1 This test method2 covers procedures for penetrant ex-
amination of materials. They are nondestructive testing meth-
ods for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface
such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through
leaks, or lack of fusion and are applicable to in-process, final,
and maintenance examination. They can be effectively used in
the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous
and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or
fully densified ceramics, certain nonporous plastics, and glass.
1.2 This test method also provides a reference:
1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process
recommended or required by individual organizations can be
reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness.
1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications
dealing with the liquid penetrant examination of materials and
parts. Agreement by the user and the supplier regarding
specific techniques is strongly recommended.
1.2.3 For use in the organization of the facilities and
personnel concerned with the liquid penetrant examination.
1.3 This test method does not indicate or suggest criteria for
evaluation of the indications obtained. It should be pointed out,
however, that after indications have been produced, they must
be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. For this purpose
there must be a separate code or specification or a specific
agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of
indications considered acceptable, and those considered unac-