OBJECTIVES: To find out the frequency and etiological pattern of secondary hypertension
under 30 years of age.
STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study
SETTING: All medical and gynae/obs units and nephrourology unit of Liaquat University
Hospital Jamshoro/Hyderabad over a period of 02 years.
METHODS: 50 young hypertensive patients of either sex and with negative family history
of hypertension or diabetes mellitus were selected and evaluated on especially prepared
proforma by taking comprehensive history, detailed examination and carrying out basic
as well as relevant second line investigations.
RESULTS: Analysis of 50 cases of hypertension in patients below 30 years of
age showed 11(22%) cases
to have pregnancy
(preeclampsia and eclampsia), 8(16%) acute glomerulonephritis including 01 case of
Good Pasteur’s syndrome, 3(6%) renal artery stenosis, 3(6%) Coarctation of aorta,
3(6%) Iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome, 2(4%) bilateral renal stones,1(2%) case of each
of tuberculosis of kidneys, horse shoe kidneys with multiple stones, polycystic kidney
disease, lupus nephropathy, oral contraceptive induced hypertension and right renal
hypoplasia with left renal and ureteric duplex system. In 6(12%) cases, the cause of
hypertension could not be ascertained.
CONCLUSIONS: Renal causes (renal parenchymal and renovascular) were on the top
of the list with 52% cases, pregnancy induced hypertension was the next with 22% cases.
In most of the cases, history, clinical examination, routine investigations, ultrasound
kidneys and renogram have still proved to be basic diagnostic tools for the workup of
secondary hypertension, however the value of detailed investigations could not be denied
in few cases. It is concluded that the frequency of essential and secondary hypertension
in young is entirely dependent upon the composition and source of population studied as
well as the availability of diagnostic tests.
KEY WORD: Hypertension, Secondary, Aetiology, Renal
Hypertension is the one of the leadi