SOCIAL STATUS OF RURAL AND URBAN WORKING
WOMEN IN PAKISTAN − A COMPARATIVE STUDY
zur Erlangung des Grades
Doktor der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften (Dr. rer. pol.)
am Fachbereich Sozialwissenschaften
der Universität Osnabrück
vorgelegt im November 2005
I feel honour to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Dr. György Széll for his supervision,
guidance and encouragement throughout this research. I always found him very much alive,
full of zeal, vitality and intellectual curiosity. Without his ideas, remarks and endless interest
this work could not have been carried out and completed.
I am very grateful to PD. Dr. Birgit Panke-Kochinke for agreeing to be one of the evaluators
of my thesis. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Prof. Dr. Carol Hagemann-White
and PD Dr. Carmen Schmidt for agreeing to be the members of the doctoral examination
I would like to add a very special note of appreciation to my husband, Dr. Zakir Hussain, for
his constant support, encouragement, and enduring patience during the course of my research
Finally I wish to express my heartiest gratitude and profound regards to my parents for their
moral support and encouragement during my research work.
To my parents and my husband
In Pakistan female participation in labour market has increased due to increased em-
ployment opportunities. Women are coming out of their homes in order to achieve eco-
nomic independence as well as their rights and status like men in society and in family.
Today one finds females in wide range of occupation other than teachers and doctors.
Women have started to work in middle level occupations which were regarded as male
professions only few years ago. The entry of women in labour market has fundamen-
tally changed the status of women in the family as wel