Approaching an Ambient Superconductor
Robert B. Steele
Georgeville , Quebec , Canada
February 20 , 2005
This essay discusses the structure of , and proposed synthesis routes to the
compound , 1,3,5-trithiabenzenium hexafluorophosphate , C3H3S3+ PF6- :
If it can be prepared , this sulfonium salt should be a metallic solid . It could
be a molecular metal , with an inverse temperature – electrical conductivity
relationship . It might also be a superconductor at very low temperatures ,
near absolute zero , requiring refrigeration in liquid helium . But most
intriguingly , it might also be an ambient superconductor , that is , at 25 ºC
and under one atmosphere pressure .
In conventional metallic solids , the Fermi-Dirac distribution of energies
of the valence electrons in the metallic bond [conduction band] is seen as
being detrimental to the formation of Cooper pairs , and therefore to the
appearance of superconductivity in them , except at very low temperatures .
The electronic structure of the trithiabenzenium cation is discussed , and it is
shown how possible aromaticity in it may permit its highest energy metallic
bond electrons to avoid a Fermi-Dirac distribution , resulting in the
compound , as a crystalline solid , being an ambient superconductor .
Several synthesis routes to trithiabenzenium salts , which I believe are
reasonable and practical , have been outlined .
Ever since the phenomenon of superconductivity in metallic solids was
first observed in 1911 , researchers and technologists have dreamed of
discovering materials that would be fully functional superconductors under
ambient conditions of temperature and pressure . Nearly a century later this
goal , still formally out of reach , remains a sort of “Holy Grail” for
condensed matter physicists , and in general , solid state scientists (ref. 1 ,
page 28) . I say “formally” , because apparently there are