Artificial Intelligence (CS607)
© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan
This booklet is organized as chapters that elaborate on various concepts of
Artificial Intelligence. The field itself is an emerging area of computer sciences
and a lot of work is underway in order to mature the concepts of this field.
In this booklet we will however try to envelop some important aspects and basic
concepts which will help the reader to get an insight into the type of topics that
Artificial Intelligence deals with.
We have used the name of the field i.e. Artificial Intelligence (commonly referred
as AI) without any explanation of the name itself. Let us now look into a simple
but comprehensive way to define the field.
To define AI, let us first try to understand that what is Intelligence?
2 What is Intelligence?
If you were asked a simple question; how can we define Intelligence, many of
you would exactly know what it is but most of you won’t exactly be able to define
it. Is it something tangible? We all know that it does exist but what actually it is.
Some of us will attribute intelligence to living beings and would be of the view that
all living species are intelligent. But how about these plants and tress, they are
living species but are they also intelligent? So can we say that Intelligence is a
trait of some living species? Let us try to understand the phenomena of
intelligence by using a few examples.
Consider the following image where a mouse is trying to search a maze in order
to find its way from the bottom left to the piece of cheese in the top right corner of
This problem can be considered as a common real life problem which we deal
with many times in our life, i.e. finding a path, may be to a university, to a friends
house, to a market, or in this case to the piece of cheese. The mouse tries
various paths as shown by arrows and can reach the cheese by more than one
path. In other words the mouse can find mor