Lawrence D. Lynch
Bechtel Power Corporation
Charles A. Bullinger
Retired, Bechtel Power Corporation
A. B. Cleveland, Jr.
Piping is a major expenditure in the design and construction of industrial, refinery,
petrochemical, or power-generating plants when one considers engineering costs,
material costs, and fabrication and field labor costs. Proper planning and execution
of the design and routing of pipe can have a major impact on controlling the total
installed cost (TIC).
Piping design and equipment arrangement are interrelated subjects that cannot
be well taught in the classroom. Most good designers throughout history have
learned their profession by a combination of academic and practical work. Field
and design office plus a little shop experience is good preparation for designing or
teaching. This topic is very broad-based and relies on a sound mechanical engi-
neering background and a lot of common sense. The use of previous designs and
drawings is a good way to learn and improve on current designs.
The experienced piping designer needs to have a working knowledge of plant
layout, equipment arrangement, and system functionality associated with one or
more fields of endeavor, such as commercial, industrial, refinery, petrochemical,
or power. In addition, the designer must have an understanding of the practical
application of piping materials, valves, pumps, tanks, pressure vessels, heat ex-
changers, power boilers, vendor-supplied skid assemblies, steam turbine drivers,
and other machinery and equipment.
CODES AND STANDARDS
The various codes and standards applicable to the engineering, design, and fabrica-
tion of piping systems are discussed and summarized in Chap. A4 of this handbook.
GENERIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
These codes and standards were written to establish minimum requirements for
safe design and construction with very little reference to the physical routing of
piping. However, the piping designer should be f