Actual physical item you see before you (monitor, CPU, keyboard, mouse, speakers)
Programs that tell these pieces how to function (Applications and Operating Systems)
Code that tells the hardware how to do something
Examples: how to add, how to move the cursor, etc.
Vista, Windows 7, Linux, Mac DOS
Program that tells the Operating System which command to execute.
Examples: to add 2 numbers, to close a window, etc.
Microsoft Word, Internet Explorer, Paint
Hardware and Software
Input / Output
Ways the use communicates with the computer
Keyboards, Mouse, Microphones, etc.
Ways the computer communicates with the user
Extremely fast since it interacts directly with the CPU
Built into the computer -- you can't remove primary storage
Anything stored in primary storage is lost after the computer powers down
Relatively slower than Primary Storage
Tangible objects are used for secondary storage (hard drive, CD-ROM, Memory Stick, Floppy
Storage is permanent and will be retained even the computer powers down
RAM, or Random Access Memory, is the most common type of primary storage.
ROM cannot be altered once it has been written to memory -- a file saved on a CD-
ROM can never be removed from the disk.
CD-RWs, or CD-Rewriteable, is a kind of secondary storage that is saved after a
computer powers down but can still be overwritten. This is also the kind of storage
used on memory sticks.
ROM, or Read-Only Memory, is the kind of secondary storage used on CD-ROMs
RAM vs. ROM
Number of Bytes
0.125 (1/8 of a byte)
After this there was mathematical and consumer confusion. Terms sprang up like "kilobyte" that
people thought just meant 1,000 bytes but really meant 1024. Although this wasn't so significant