Volume 4 Issue 5
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 5 Issue 4, May-June 2021 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42440 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 844 Effect of Organizational Culture and Employee Performance of Selected Banks in Anambra State Olise, Moses C1; Okolocha, Chizoba B2 1Department of Marketing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Awka, Nigeria 2Department of Entrepreneurial Studies, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria ABSTRACT This study determined the organizational culture and employee performance of selected banks in Anambra state. The specific objectives are to: determine whether supportive culture has a significant influence on employees’ performance and evaluate the extent to which power culture has a significant influence on employees’ performance. This study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study consists of seven selected commercial banks operating in Anambra State, Nigerian. A questionnaire was used to generate data from targeted respondents. Data collected for the study were analyzed by the researcher using five point likert’s scale. The hypotheses were tested using a simple regression statistical tool with aid of SPSS version 20.0 at5% level of significance. The result of the analysis specifies that supportive and power culture is positively influenced the employee’s performance of Nigerian banks. KEYWORDS: Supportive culture, Power culture, and Employee performance How to cite this paper: Olise, Moses C | Okolocha, Chizoba B "Effect of Organizational Culture and Employee Performance of Selected Banks in Anambra State" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-5 | Issue-4, June 2021, pp.844-854, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd42440.pdf Copyright © 2021 by author (s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) INTRODUCTION Over the past decades, the relationship between organizational culture and employee performance has gained a great deal of research interest in management studies. This relationship is affected by organizations’ openness and how they seek and use information in the market (Stoica, Liao, & Welsch, 2004). The primary concern is that the organizational culture creates the value of an institution not only by the manners and behaviours of every individual in the organization but also by the collective attitudes and behaviour of the organization in general (Aksoy, Apak, Eren, & Korkmaz, 2014). A model of norms, values, beliefs, and attitudes has a significant effect on organizational behaviour (Akta, Çiçek, & Kıyak, 2011). It is the pattern of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes as well as assumptions that may not be expressed but shapes how people in an organization conduct themselves and get things done (Armstrong, 2006). Understanding the culture of an organization is important in order to remove the challenges faced by the organization in the process of making organizational changes. Following this argument, Ezirim, Nwibere, and Emecheta (2012) claim that managers must shape and build a culture that is more favorable to both employees and the organization to achieve the needed organizational goals. In times of economic recession, maximizing output is of utmost importance to shareholders. Organizations realize that employees make businesses work and the culture of an organization connects employees to the organization. This has resulted in the idea that maximizing an employee’s performance in public organizations requires the implementation of policies, practices, and procedures that match the employee’s needs (Isa, Ugheoke & Noor, 2016). The idea that organizations can have a culture that affects the performance of its employees started when scholars within the field of sociology responded to Max Weber’s theory of bureaucracy. Weber illustrated that the ideal bureaucracy is subjected to formalized and compartmentalized offices with sharply defined labor rules, fixed jurisdictions, a clear chain of command as well as rules of professional conduct to ensure consistent, objective application of rules to the governed (Nier, 2009). To have a better understanding, many cultural typologies have been developed, because a particular type of culture produces a different outcome and the overall performance of an organization is subject to the extent to which the values of the cultures are extensively shared (Ogbonna & Harris, 2000). For instance, the competing value framework (CVF) classifies organizational culture into four cultural categories such as clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy (Quinn & Robert 2011; Tseng, 2010). According to this school of thought, clan culture builds a warm and friendly work environment where employees can generously share their knowledge, while the adhocracy culture creates self- motivated, entrepreneurial, and innovative work settings, encouraging individual initiative and provides autonomy for those individuals who are prepared to take risks. Market IJTSRD42440 International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42440 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 845 culture creates a work environment through hard-driving competitiveness, and result-oriented organisations directed by tough and demanding leaders who are hard drivers, producers, as well as competitors (Tseng, 2010). The hierarchical culture has an unambiguous organizational structure, standardized policy and procedures, stringent control, and well-defined responsibilities. Gu, Hoffman, Cao, and Schniederjans (2014) classify organizational culture into four dimensions such as leadership ability to take risks, tolerance, results oriented, institutional collectivism, and positive work environment. Other researchers further narrow the organizational culture into three dimensions. For instance, Zehir, Ertosun, Zehir, and Müceldili (2011) classify organizational culture into competitive, bureaucratic, and community dimensions. Yiing and Ahmad (2009) divide the organizational culture into supportive, innovative, and bureaucratic cultures. Wallach (1983) distinguishes each characteristic with adjectives that make a distinction between attitudes, behaviours, as well as values. According to Wallach, a bureaucratic culture is hierarchically structured, arranged, routine, and highly coordinated. An innovative culture is identified as being creative, enterprising, risk-taking, and results-oriented. Supportive culture is distinguished by unbiased, friendly, trusting, as well as shared behaviors. However, a study by Klehe and Anderson (2007) divided organizational culture into two categories such as collectivism and individualism. This demonstrates that there is no one acceptable way of examining organizational culture. This is consistent with Schneider, Ehrhart, and Macey (2013) who claim no precise way on how organizational culture should be studied. It is emphasized that no one type of organizational culture is better than the other, and different types of culture are better for different workplaces, different corporate philosophies and different types of companies (Schneider, et al. 2013). Hence, an organization should focus on the type of culture that will create a better performance (Iliuta, 2014). However, the relationship between organizational culture and employee performance has not been clearly understood within the domain of public organizations by researchers. It has failed to agree on a universal theoretical framework primarily due to the lack of study on banking sector organizational culture, even though researchers such as Denison (1990) and Kotter and Heskett (1992) have established a relationship between culture and performance. Organizational culture is based on cognitive systems which help to explain how employees think about and make a decision. Charles and Gareth (2009) argued that, “organizational culture is the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization. To them, the culture of the organization control the way employees interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization.” This shows that the organization’s norms and values have a strong effect on all those who are attached with the organization. He further explained that, the norms are invisible but if the organization wants to improve upon the performance of the employees and profitability, then norms must be their priority (Isa, Ugheoke & Noor, 2016). Many studies have also been carried out on organizational culture and employee’s performance; some of the studies found a significant positive effect between organisational culture and employees’ performance. Despite the contradictory assessment, Schein (2010) still believe that supportive culture like rewarding and compensation, communication, training and growth opportunities as well as supervisory support are conservative force for employee performance and a source of competitive advantage for a firm. He further, argues that the culture of every modern organization should be supportive but limited to certain conditions. The results from the empirical studies are inconsistent and some are contradictory; ranging from positive to negative insignificant relationship besides, there is limited study of this nature in the Nigerian banking sector and this created a gap in the literature which this study becomes significant. On this note, this study therefore, seeks to determine the effect of organizational culture on employee performance in deposit money banks. This study determines the organizational culture and employee performance of selected banks in Anambra state. The specific objectives are to: 1. Determine whether supportive culture has a significant influence on employees’ performance. 2. Evaluate the extent to which power culture has significant influence on employees’ performance. Review of Related Literature Organizational Culture The concept of organizational culture has attracted a significant amount of research since the 1980s. Before the concept surfaced in the literature, the concept of organizational climate was common in the organizational and management literature in the 1960s and 1970s. There is no fixed, universal definition or understanding for culture, and neither for organizational culture, there is no single definition for it. Naranjo-Valencia, Jiménez-Jiménez and Sanz-Valle (2016) saw organizational culture as the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one organization from others. Chatman and Eunyoung (2003) also described it as a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs which guide people to be aware of appropriate and inappropriate behaviour. Robbins (2005) defined organizational culture as a system of shared meanings held by members of an organization that distinguishes them from others. Therefore, organizational culture is refers to norms, values and beliefs that the members of an organization maintain about rules of conduct, leadership styles, administrative procedures, rituals and customs. Organizational culture according to Mobley, Wang and Fang (2005), is a less tangible factor determines source of competition outside quality, cost, technology, consumer service brand etc. Organizational culture are introduced to all employees once they are recruited, this helps them to be acquainted with the organization and the happenings in the system (Fakhar, Zahid & Muhammad 2012). To Palmer and Hardy (2002), organizational culture can undermine performance, especially when such performance comes with arrogance, politics and bureaucracy, all of which can prevent organizations from identifying new directions and inhibit change. According to Alvesson (2002), organizational culture is behavioural regularities, that guides policies on how to best workers and customers are to be treated. That is, the organizational climate gives an overall feeling and this is portrayed in the physical layout, interaction process and the ways employees conduct themselves. Organizational culture International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42440 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 846 is the values, principles, traditions, and attitudes that affect the way members of an organization behave (Robbins, Odendaal, & Roodt, 2007). Many definitions of organizational culture, but essentially these definitions refer to three approaches on references (Martins, 1992), namely: (i) Integration approach, states that every organization has one type of culture that coloring all the values and activities of its members. This approach emphasizes the consensus of all members of the organization to a dominant culture. (ii) Differentiation approach, emphasizing the sub-cultural consensus. In this approach, every organization can have one or more sub- cultures that can still be divided into three, namely sub- cultures that are in line with corporate culture, sub-cultures that are different from corporate culture and sub-culture that are opposed to corporate culture. (iii) Fragmentation approach, in this approach there is no consensus among members of the organization and there is no similarity or agreement of values adopted in the members of the organization. In other word, the corporate culture does not exist, that there are personal values of members of the organization (Romi, 2018). According to Cambridge dictionary, culture can be defined as the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time. Organizational culture is also described by Needle (2004) as the behavior or interaction of humans within an organization. Many researches have linked culture in the organization with many different organizational behaviors. Schein (2014) confirmed that culture is a basic assumption that is discovered or developed by a group of people where they learn to solve problems, adapt to the external environment, and integrate well to resolve the issue properly. Therefore, culture is appropriately taught to new members McKenna and Beech (2000) define organizational culture as the values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors held by members of the organization. Kreitner and Kinicki (2005) argue that organizational culture is a notion that is owned, implicitly accepted by the group and determine how these groups feel, think, and react to itheir environment are diverse. According to Kreitner and Kinicki (2005), culture has several functions in the organization. First, hold the key to the limits, meaning a culture of creating differences between one organization to another. Second, create a cultural identity of members of the organization. Thirdly, culture helped create employee commitment to the organization that is greater than the individual interest. Fourth, culture improves the stability of the social system. Each organization can build and develop the culture of the organization following the demands of the external environment; the culture will have an effective and efficient to improve performance to meet the needs of stakeholders and existence. The dimensions of organizational culture according to Schein (2014) consists of three dimensions, namely: a) External adaptation tasks, consisting of the mission, goals, basic facilities, and the measurement of success; b) Internal integration tasks consist of restrictions in the group, the placement status/power, and the relationships within the group; and c) Basic underlying assumptions consist of a relationship with the environment, the nature of the activities of employees, the nature of time, and the nature of the relationship between employees. According to Greenberg (2010), dimensions of organizational culture, that is: a) Company founder. Cultural organizations working can be traced, at least in part, to the company's founder. b) Experience with the environment. Cultural organizations often develop outside the organization's experience with the external environment; c) Contact with others. Organizational culture is also growing outside the contact between a group of individuals within the organization who came to share the interpretation of events and activities within the organization. Furthermore, Robbins (2008) mentions the seven dimensions of organizational culture, namely: a) Innovation and risk-taking, namely the extent to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks; b) Attention to details, namely the extent to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis and attention to detail; c) Orientation results, namely the extent to which the management focus on results rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve those results; d) Orientation of people, namely the extent to which management decisions take into account the impact of the results of the employee; e) Orientation teams, namely the extent to which work activities are organized based on the team; f) Aggressiveness, namely the extent to which employees are aggressive and competitive; and g) Stability, namely the extent to which the organization's activities emphasize the maintenance of the status quo. Employee performance The definition of employee performance is the result of work in quality and quantity achieved by an employee in performing his duties under the responsibilities given to him. Performance is a record of success resulting from the function of a particular job/activity over a given period. There are six categories to measure employee performance that is quality, quantity, punctuality, effectiveness, independence and work commitment (Budihardjo, 2003). Performance is the degree of completion of tasks that accompany a person's job to how well the individual meets the job demand (Romi, 2018). Employee performance is a record of the results obtained from the specific job functions for a certain period of employee (Bernardin and Russel: 2008) and according to Mathis and Jackson (2011) the employee's performance is something that has been done and not done by an employee. John (2012) stated that the object of the performance appraisal evolved from an individual-centered approach moving towards employment (job centered) and finally centered on the target (objective centered). The individual- centered approach is evaluating the character or personal characteristics of an individual. Job centered approach is more focused on the behavioral approach. Finally, the approach shifted towards output orientation that person's performance ratings based on results (outputs). Employee performance appraisals are done properly by its function would benefit the company because it can improve performance. The dimensions of the employee performance according to Dessler (2012) consists of five dimensions, 1) Quality of Work, which is characteristic of a job that can show the level of needs and desires that are expected by a person; 2) The quantity of work, is the amount of work completed by the employee in accordance with the job description in a specified period; 3) Supervision, is the attitude of giving International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42440 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 847 landing a job or duty of superiors to subordinates who lack the knowledge and skills; 4) Presence, is the level of attendance of employees in the workplace; 5) Creation, is the attitude or activities to protect, maintain and allocate something. According to Bernardin and Russel (2008), the dimensions of employee performance consist of: 1) Quality, which shows the level of the work process or the work that has been achieved from a job; 2) Quantity, which is the amount of product produced expressed in the currency, the number of production units, or the number of cycles of activities have been completed; 3) Timelines, namely the speed of a work that has been completed within a predetermined time; 4) Cost-Effectiveness ie the maximum level of use of the existing resources in doing a particular job; 5) Supervision, namely the extent to which an employee can complete the work without the need for supervision; 6) Interpersonal impact, that levels of the circumstances in which employees can create a comfortable atmosphere in the work, confident, doing good, and work together with colleagues. Business researchers and management scholars are mainly concerned with identifying the most significant definition of employee’s performance. Even though employee’s performance has become a common phenomenon in management studies and makes its definition and structure reliable and explicitly justified March and Sutton (1997). Additionally, as mentioned earlier, Anitha (2014) defined employee performance as the financial or non-financial outcome of the employee that has a direct link with both the performance of the organization and its success. Organization and employee performance Many organizational behavioral theorists believe that a good fit between employees and the organization is significant to performance. The linkage between organizational culture and performance has received a great deal of attention from scholars in the field of organizational culture (Ogbonna and Harris, 2000; Henri, 2006).Stoica et al. (2004) asserted that the relationship between culture and performance is influenced by the way organizations search for and use information. Therefore, comprehending the correlation between organizational culture and employee’s task performance is an important research subject because detections of various studies have demonstrated that an individual’s work performance is a vital element toward the success of organizations (Shahzad et al.2013). A well-built organizational culture serves as a powerful tool to execute innovative ideas, influence employee’s behaviors, and increases performance (Kim Jean Lee & Yu, 2004). When an individual’s values and organizational practices are well integrated, it will largely affect the level of individual and organizational output. The more employees identify that an organization provides uninterrupted learning, dialogue with employees, and has a well-connected system with good leadership, the more committed they will be to the organizational goals (Joo & Lim, 2009; Joo & Shim, 2010). Possibly, employee’s dissatisfaction with an organizational culture is the most important reason that causes poor performance and turnover in current organizations. Consequently, Silverthorne (2004) argues that the better the fit, the better the extent of job satisfaction, not considering the type of organizational culture. Following this, literature suggests that organizations should pay attention to their culture and build suitable communication and capability to manage uncertainty and to achieve the needed organizational commitment (Cheung, Wong, & Wu, 2011; Ezirim, Nwibere, & Emecheta, 2012). Given the above, different cultural practices have gained research attention. For instance, a study by Higgins and McAllaster (2002) opined that an innovative-supportive culture is obtained from values, and informed underlying belief structure in addition to strong daily practices. Accordingly, Detert, Schroeder, and Mauriel (2000) argue that the values of an organization serve as the foundation of cultures that promote process innovation that permit or hinder performance improvement. It is a system that allows innovation, necessitates a culture of discipline (for example, an attitude and practice that emphasizes the monitoring of quality to be aware of problems), and encourages creativity in the process of solving problems. A study by Silverthorne (2004) involving a sample of Taiwanese employees argues that a bureaucratic organization has a larger problem in sustaining employee job satisfaction than organizations that have an innovative or supportive culture; thus, emphasizing that an organization that has bureaucratic culture results in the lowest level of job satisfaction. A study by Ogbonna and Harris (2000) also established that competitive and innovative cultures had a direct relationship with employees’ performance, while community and bureaucratic cultures had no direct relationship with performance. According to Damanpour and Gopalakrishnan (2001), effective innovation improves organizational effectiveness and responsiveness. However, despite the significant argument on innovative culture, other researchers argue that innovation-supportive culture remains a difficult and unstructured phenomenon (Higgins & McAllaster, 2002). An innovative culture poses great challenges. For instance, Baer and Frese (2003) and Black, Carlile, and Repenning (2004) argue that an innovative culture is highly disruptive, changes relationships across functional as well as occupational limits or causes adjustments to the organizational structure and climate. These results further indicate that different cultural practices have different effects on employees’ performance. Supportive Culture and Employee Performance Supportive Culture is defined as an organizational climate that is based on mutual trust between the individual and the organization. In such organizations, people are valued as human beings and are not just machines. Every organization in this world has a culture, whether it is deliberately implemented or not. However, some appear to be more supportive than others and that is what this study seeks to answer. Scholars like Kathryn, (2002); Perrow, (2014) March and Simon (1958) among others initially conceptualized supportive organizational culture as a coherent set of values, beliefs, assumptions and practices among the employees within the organization (Riley, 2014). These scholars further explained by putting much emphasis on the pervasiveness of consistent values, beliefs, assumptions and practices as well as the extent of consistency of the various values, beliefs, assumptions and practices of its members within the organization. Other proponents also argue that a supportive and culture tend to benefit the organization since it fosters commitment, motivation, solidarity, identity and sameness which turn to facilitate employee performance (Perrow 2014). International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42440 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 848 Power Culture and Employee Performance Power culture is a type of culture in which leadership resides in the person who is in charge, and rests on the leaders' ability and willingness to administer rewards and punishments. A power-oriented organization is based on inequality of access to resources. In other words, the people in power use resources to either satisfy or frustrate the needs of others, and, by so doing, they control the behavior of others (San & Hyun, 2009). Leadership resides in the person who is in charge, and rests on the leader’s ability and willingness to administer rewards and punishments. At best, the power-orientated leader is firm, fair and generous, and has loyal subordinates (San & Hyun, 2009). Handy, (1999) illustrates that power culture organizations can respond quickly to events, but they are dependent on their continued support on the abilities of the people at the Centre, succession is a critical issue. He further argues that if managers get this culture right, it can result in a happy, satisfied organization that in turn can breed quite intense commitment to corporate goals hence effective service delivery. According to Martin, (2005) Power cultures require that much faith is put in the individual and little in committees or teamwork. (Harrison & stokes, 1992), also pointed out that an organization that is power-oriented is based on biasness in access to resources, where a resource in this case may include anything one person controls that another person needs. This type of culture is rational when the power holder is comprehended what is that will enable him to influence employees behavior in line with the organization objectives and expectation. This culture is appreciated for its ability to aid in the fastest realization of results but has the disadvantage of the destruction of motivation, loyalty and increase in employee turnover thus compromising on service delivery (Neboisa, 2012). Empirical Review Various studies have been carried out on organizational culture and employee performance across the globe including Nigeria and they have mixed and controversial results. Okolocha (2021) examined the effect of job satisfaction on employee productivity of public universities in South-East, Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted for the study. Data were collected through the questionnaires distributed among academic staff of South- East States of Nigerian public universities, and analyzed using five point Likert’s scale. Regression analysis was used to test the two formulated hypotheses with aid of SPSS version 20.0.The study found that working conditions and salary have a positive significant effect on the employee productivity of public universities in South-East, Nigeria. Okolocha (2020) ascertained the extent strategic planning affects the performance of selected banks in Enugu State, Nigeria. A survey design was adopted for the study. Sixty (60) questionnaires were administered to the staff of the selected banks in Nigeria. Hypotheses were tested using regression analysis with aid of SPSS version 20. The study revealed that organizational structure and employee welfare have effect on the organizational performance of selected banks in Enugu State and this effect is statistically significant. Ng’ong’a, Okolo, Rambo and Orwa (2018) examined whether organizational culture affect the performance of companies listed in NSE. The study adopted a survey design using a sample of 38 companies on a population of 64 companies over five years (2013-2017). Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found that there was a significance positive effect between the two variables with or without moderator technology and concluded that organizational culture is flexible and can adapt to changes in the internal and external environment. Ghazi and Muzaffar (2018) ascertained the direct and indirect influences of organizational culture on job performance, as well as a sub-element of organizational culture on such performance. A quantitative study tool, based on a comprehensive research questionnaire, was employed. The findings indicate a positive relationship between organizational culture and job performance. Hailin, Haimeng and Qiang (2018) examined whether corporate culture promotion affects firm performance in China in terms of firm market value, firm financial performance and innovation output. They find consistent evidence that corporate culture promotion is negatively related to firm market value, positively related to innovation output and not significantly related to firm financial performance. In addition, some specific corporate culture promotions, such as innovation culture promotion and integrity culture promotion, are not related to firm value or financial performance. However, innovation culture promotion is positively associated with innovation output. Olaigbe, Unachukwu, and Oyewole (2018) ascertained the influence of organizational culture on the performance of the Nigerian insurance industry using WAPIC Insurance Plc. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the forty five (45) respondents through the convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed with the aid of Correlation and Linear Regression. Findings showed that organizational culture dimensions were joint predictors of organizational performance. The predictor variables jointly explained 75% of the variance of organizational performance while the remaining 25% could be due to the effect of extraneous variables. The study also established that organizational culture dimensions were independents strong predictors of organizational performance. Durgadevi and Vasantha (2017) studied the different types of cultures in an organization and to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. A descriptive research design was adopted in this study. 230 IT employees have respondents were selected to fill the questionnaire for this study. The study employed multiple regressions in testing the formulated hypotheses. The findings of this study are only related to the IT employees from Chennai. Halomoan, Wibowo, Husein and Hanes (2016) ascertained the influence of Training, Organizational Culture, Work Motivation, and Job Satisfaction on the Employee Performance in the Defence Industry in the Province of West Java. The research design used in this study is a causal design which explains the causal relationship. The sample selection used simple random sampling. The method of research used descriptive statistics and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results showed that the Training has a significant impact on Performance; Organizational Culture has positive and significant impact on Job Performance. Isa, Ugheoke and Noor (2016) ascertained the role of organizational culture on an employee’s performance within the context of public sector organizations. Data were collected from 250 employees using a questionnaire based on a well-known and extensively used measurement tool developed by Wallach. The result revealed that two out of the three cultural dimensions identified in this study are found to have a significant positive influence on an employee’s performance. Elvis (2015) determined how organizational culture impact International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42440 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 849 on employee job satisfaction can be a source of competitive advantage. Using a case study method, the paper derives quantitative data from the employees of a selected banking company in Oxford, a city in United Kingdom. The empirical findings show that cultural traits of communication, motivation, growth opportunities and supervising support in organizations tend to make employees shift mind set and help the firm in its competitive advantage. Mashal and Saima (2014) ascertained the impact of organizational culture on organizational performance in order to know that how culture of an organization assist in enhancing the organizational performance. This study is conducted in different Bahawalpur based franchises of telecom companies. Quantitative approach is adopted in which a questionnaire is used to collect the data. The findings indicate that all the dimension of the culture influence the different perspective of organizational performance. Zakari, Poku and Ansah (2013) ascertained the effect of organizational culture and organizational performance of banking industry in Ghana and reported that there was a significant difference among the banks with organizational culture traits and no significant difference among them regarding performance. The variable items were measured using five-point Likert scale of the nine banks in Ghana. They analyzed 296 respondents from various departments with varied positions. Their study did not consider other variables of Denison’s organizational model namely, involvement culture, adaptability culture and consistency culture which are also critical in the study of organizational culture and performance when using Denison’s organizational model. Fakhar, Zahid and Muhammed (2013) examined the impact of five organizational culture dimensions such as customer service, employee participation, reward system, innovation & risk-taking, and communication system on employee’s job performance of selected software houses in Pakistan. Results showed that all the five dimensions of organizational culture have significant positive impact on employee’s job performance at selected software houses in Pakistan. Ezekiel and Darius (2012) examined the impact of four corporate cultural variables namely, involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission on employee commitment to the organization. Results showed that involvement and adaptability significantly correlated with commitment, while consistency and mission did not correlate with commitment. Mohammad, Rumana and Saad (2012) determined the impact of organizational culture on employee performance and productivity from the perspectives of multinational companies operating especially under the telecommunication sector of Bangladesh in South Asia. The study found that organizational culture significantly influences employee performance and productivity in the dynamic emerging context. Hasan and Hamid (2011) studied the link connecting four types of organizational cultures and how it shapes the organization. Results of Correlation and Friedman tests reveal that there is a significant correlation between organizational cultures and learning organizations. In adding up the study has found that clan culture has a high correlation coefficient, but adhocracy culture has the maximum grade among diverse types of cultures. The above literature and empirical studies on organizational culture and employees performance were characterized with mixed reactions from different researchers, some are of opinion that there is a positive significant relationship between organizational culture and employees performance while some had a contrary view between organizational culture and employees performance; However, lack of consensus on the empirical literature calls for further studies on study of this nature. Methodology This study adopted a survey research design. Survey design involves the use of a sample to obtain the opinion of large number of people. It is a research design that study the information gathered from a fraction or percentage of the population. The population of the study consists of seven selected commercial banks operating in Anambra State, Nigerian. The population comprises of the 127 staff of the bank branches across the state. The researcher used questionnaire to obtain primary data. The questionnaire was designed in a structured form and made up of general questions of two research questions to be answered hypothetically and was restricted with the responses made of strongly agree (SA) agree (A) undecided (U strongly disagree (SD) and disagreed (D). Method of Data Analysis Data collected for the study were analyzed by the researcher using five point likert’s scale. The hypotheses were tested using a simple regression statistical tool with aid of SPSS version 20.0 at 5% level of significance. Decision Rule: The decision for the hypotheses is to accept the alternative hypotheses if the p-value of the test statistic is less or equal than the alpha and to reject the alternative hypotheses if the p-value of the test statistic is greater than alpha at 5% significance level. Model Specification The researcher estimated model in the following form: EPFit = a0 + β1SUPt + Σit …………………………………………….….i EPFit = a0 + β2PWRit + Σit …………..………………………….…..........ii Where: The dependent variable: Employee performance (EPF) and The independent variables: SUP = Supportive culture PWR= Power culture a0 = slope of the model βI, β2, = coefficient of parameters. i for the financial year ending at year t. Data Presentation and Analysis Out of 80 copies of questionnaires distributed, 72 were completed and returned. This represents 90%. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42440 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 850 Table 1: Summary of the questionnaires distributed S/N STATEMENTS SA A UN D SD Supportive culture 1 Workers have favorable conditions for decision making and for giving ideas, suggestions in various forms. 21 37 2 10 3 2 The organization does not change the system in order to improve the collective abilities to provide value for their customers. 30 34 0 8 0 3 The organization promotes and ensures collaboration and participation of every employee. 25 38 3 5 1 4 This level acts to guide strategic decision-making throughout our business. 30 40 0 2 0 5 Organizational Internal integration and external adaptation can in most cases be odds. 21 30 3 16 2 Power culture 6 Our organization has goals and objectives that guide our operations. 31 34 0 7 0 7 The changes are aligned according to customer focus. 22 31 2 15 2 8 The organization has a mission statement and defines what business is in and vision of where they want to be. 19 40 0 10 3 9 Change in the system does not encourage, in order improving the organization’s collective abilities to provide value for customers. 27 33 0 7 5 10 There is leaders' ability and willingness to administer rewards and punishments. 28 30 4 9 1 employees’ performance 11 There are core values in the organization that help to define how the organization would behave. 23 34 1 12 1 12 A collective bargaining agreement is established to create peace and harmony in the work place. 29 30 1 8 4 13 Employees often do not approve of changes and resist or behave indifferently during change process. 28 35 2 7 0 14 Organizational interest attracts and releases the personal energy of its employees in the pursuit of common goals. 32 30 0 10 0 15 Strategic direction adopted to enables employee stay focus and in line with the business environment. 23 28 3 13 5 Source: Field Survey, 2021 Table 2: Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation EPF 5 7.00 157.00 71.8000 70.26165 SUP 5 6.00 179.00 72.2000 77.27678 PWR 5 6.00 168.00 72.0000 72.27379 Valid N (listwise) 5 Table 2 shows the mean (average) for each of the variables, their maximum values, minimum values, and standard deviation. The results in table 2 provide insight on the Nigerian commercial banks that were used in this study. It was observed that on the average over the periods, the sampled quoted Nigerian quoted commercial banks were characterized by improved employee performance (EPF=72.8). The gap between the maximum and minimum value of the employee performance and organizational structure (supportive culture, and power culture) specifies that organizational culture determines the level of employee performance of the banks. Hypothesis One HO: Supportive culture has no significant influence on employees’ performance of Nigerian banks. Table 3: Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .990a .979 .973 11.62680 a. Predictors: (Constant), SUP Table 3 shows an adjusted R2 value of .979. The adjusted R2, which represents the coefficient of determinations implies that 97% of the total variation in the dependent variable explained by the explanatory variable. The adjusted R2 of 97% did not create issue to the study model and further recommends that the explanatory variable is appropriately selected and used. This means that 3% of the variation in the dependent variable is explained by other factors not taken in the study model. Table 4: ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 19341.253 1 19341.253 143.075 .001b Residual 405.547 3 135.182 Total 19746.800 4 a. Dependent Variable: EPF b. Predictors: (Constant), SUP International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42440 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 851 Table 5: Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 6.832 7.519 .909 .431 SUP .900 .075 .990 11.961 .001 a. Dependent Variable: EPF Table 4 above it shows that the p-value is 0.001 specifies that the supportive culture has a positive influence on employee performance and this influence is statistically significant at level of significance (5%); hence p-value of the test statistic is lower than alpha value. in table 5, coefficient correlation result indicate that a supportive culture of the explanatory variable has high relationship with employees performance is significant (0.99) Decision: Since p-value is less or equal to alpha, therefore, null hypothesis is rejected and uphold alternative hypothesis which state that supportive culture has a significant influence on employees’ performance of Nigerian banks. Hypothesis Two HO: Power culture has a no significant influence on employees’ performance of Nigerian banks. Table 7: Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .996a .991 .989 7.51397 a. Predictors: (Constant), PWR Table 3 shows an adjusted R2 value of .989. The adjusted R2, which represents the coefficient of determinations imply that 98% of the total variation in the dependent variable explained by the explanatory variable. The adjusted R2 of 98% did not create issue to the study model and further recommend that the explanatory variable is appropriately selected and used. This means that 2% of the variation in the dependent variable is explained by other factors not taken in the study model. Table 8: ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 19577.421 1 19577.421 346.750 .000b Residual 169.379 3 56.460 Total 19746.800 4 a. Dependent Variable: EPF b. Predictors: (Constant), PWR Table 9: Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.105 5.030 .419 .704 PWR .968 .052 .996 18.621 .000 a. Dependent Variable: EPF Table 8 above it shows that the p-value is 0.000, specifies that the power culture has a positive influence on employee performance and this influence is statistically significant at level of significance (5%); hence p-value of the test statistic is lower than alpha value. in table 5, coefficient correlation result indicate that a power culture of the explanatory variable has high relationship with employees performance is significant (0.99) Decision: Since p-value is less or equal to alpha, therefore, null hypothesis is rejected and uphold alternative hypothesis which state that supportive culture has a significant influence on employees’ performance of Nigerian banks. The result of the analysis specifies that supportive and power culture are positively influenced the employee’s performance of Nigerian banks. However, this influence is statistically significant at 5% level of significance. This result is in line with the findings of; Olaigbe, Unachukwu and Oyewole (2018) who reported that organizational culture dimensions were joint predictors of organizational performance, Halomoan, Wibowo, Husein and Hanes (2016) whose results showed that Training has a significant impact on Performance; Organizational Culture has a positive and significant impact on Job Performance, and Isa, Ugheoke and Noor (2016) who revealed that two out of the three cultural dimensions identified in this study are found to have a significant positive influence on an employee’s performance. Conclusion and Recommendations This study assessed the significant influence of supportive and power cultures on employees’ performance of Nigerian banks. The result of the analysis specifies that supportive and power culture are positively influenced the employee’s performance of Nigerian banks. However, this influence is statistically significant at 5% level of significance. As the data show all the elements of organizational culture influence the employee performance positively and are statistically significant. Many employees get motivated from their colleagues in the organization, most at times they feel dared on others performance and this will move them to improve their performance to be like the heroes and this study have gone a long way to proof the heroes have a great influence on employees performance. 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