Angara disease, Inclusion
in Broiler Chickens
• A hydropericardium syndrome first
appeared in the commercial broiler
chickens in Pakistan during late 1987,
causing high mortality (Anonymous, 1988).
Later the syndrome has also affected
medium weight laying strains and broiler
breeder strains of the chicken (Anjum,
1988). The disease primarily affects liver,
heart, kidneys and lungs.
• It is still inflicting heavy losses.
Based on basophilic intra-nuclear
inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes
(Anjum et al, 1989), and hexagonal
adeno-like virus particles in liver
homogenates (Cheema et al., 1989), a
viral aetiology was suggested.
• It was first reported at Angara
Goth, an exclusively broiler growing
area in Karachi (Jaffery, 1988).
• Initially, it was believed that HPS
was a nutritional disorder (Qureshi,
• Litchi Heart disease, primarily of broiler
chickens, was first reported in Angara
Goth near Karachi, Pakistan, during 1987
(Khawaja et al., 1988; Gowda and
Satyanarayana, 1994), and it has been
reported to be particularly important in
some countries in Asia and America
(Jaffery, 1988; Shane, 1996; Abe et al.,
• The syndrome is characterized by an
accumulation of clear, straw-coloured
fluid in the pericardial sac,
discoloured liver and enlarged
kidneys (ANJUM et al., 1989;
CHEEMA et al., 1989).
• The sudden onest of the disease and
a mortality rate as higher as 75%
affecting the 3 to 6 week old age
group and causing a sever hazard to
poultry producers, particularly in the
broiler industry in India and Pakistan
(Gowda and Satyanarayana, 1994)
• An adenovirus was isolated from
lyophilised homogenates of livers taken
from affected birds by the Central
Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, UK and
later confirmed as a new isolate of
adenovirus designated as K31/89 by a
laboratory in Germany (Voss, 1989).