1 Richard Rudolph and Scott Ridley, Power Struggle: The
Hundred-Year War Over Electricity, (Harper & Row, New York:
2 U.S. General Accounting Office, Federal Power: The Role of
the Power Marketing Administrations in a Restructured
Electricity Industry,GAO-AIMD-97-110A, (Washington, D.C.,
June 24, 1999), 5.
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Western Area Power
Administration, 1982 Annual Report, (1983), 3.
4 U.S. Department of Energy. Energy Information Agency,
“100 Largest Utilities—Net General,” 1999.
5 Consumer-owned utilities refer to state and Federal enti
ties, Native American tribes, rural electric cooperatives and
non-profits financed by the Rural Utilities Service.
6 Rudolph and Ridley, 24, 26.
7 Rudolph and Ridley, 28.
8 Rudolph and Ridley, 27-28; Neil Baldwin, Edison: Inventing
the Century,(Hyperion Books: New York, 1995), 138.
9 Gus Norwood, Gift of the Rivers: Power for the People of the
Southeast, A History of the Southeastern Power
Administration,(U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C.: 1990), 10-16.
10 Rudolph and Ridley, 60-72.
11 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation,
Record Group 115, General Correspondence File, 1930-
1945,“Address by Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior
Before the Chamber of Commerce at Spokane, Wash.,”
12 “Address by Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior Before
the Chamber of Commerce at Spokane, Wash., 1941.
13 Lee C. White, The Public’s First Right to Federally Generated
Power: An Analysis of the Preference Clause,(American
Public Power Association, Washington, D.C.: July 1985), 9.
14 In 1911, the authorizing language of New Mexico’s Rio
Grande Project amended the repayment period from 10
to 50 years for that project only.
15 U.S. Department of Energy, Western Area Power
Administration, 1979 Annual Report (1980), 18.
16 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, RG
115, General Correspondence File, 1962-1967,Acting
Director — Bureau of Reclama