Volume 4 Issue 5
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 5 Issue 6, September-October 2021 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46372 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 43 Education and Modernization (A Comparative Study of Two Villages of India) Dr. Inderjeet Singh Bhatia Assistant, St Stephen’s College of Education, Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India ABSTRACT Contemporary education, which is an agent of modernization in various forms, is also of the Western origin. Modern education has a fundamentally different orientation and organization. The present study aims to measure the modernization among two groups of Adolescents one belonging to school going students and belongs to Non- School going students. However, the study revealed that school going students differ significantly from their Non-school going students counterparts on modernization level, as the school going students were found to be higher on the level of modernization and other components. Education and modernization are closely linked and as it is well fact that knows Education is the main instrument of change in all fields of life. In this paper the researcher has tried to highlight the role Education in enhancing modernization. KEYWORDS: Education, Modernization, school going students and Non- School going students How to cite this paper: Dr. Inderjeet Singh Bhatia "Education and Modernization (A Comparative Study of Two Villages of India)" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456- 6470, Volume-5 | Issue-6, October 2021, pp.43-48, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd46372.pdf Copyright © 2021 by author (s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) INTRODUCTION Education is regarded as a concept that draws the maximum attention of a good number of sociologists. Sociologists have established that education is one of the most important Principles governing the characteristics of individuals in traditional as well as modern large seals complex societies. Education is the action exercised by the other generations upon those who are not yet ready for a social life. Its Object is to awaken and develop in the child those physical, Intellectual and moral status which are required of him both by his society as a whole and by the milieu for which he is specially destined (Durkheim, 1956). Smith (1947) viewed education “as a process whereby the socially approved part of the cultural heritage is transmitted from one generation to the following one and whereby newly acquired knowledge is diffused among the members of society.” In the primitive societies the institution of family performed a variety of functions including the transmission of heritage and training of children in different skills, trades and occupations. On the other hand, in the present day societies, the educational institutions are entrusted with the task of imparting formal education to the younger members of the society. Therefore, the term education refers to formal schooling. The schools and colleges are responsible for the physical, mental and intellectual development of children. Education can be regarded as influencing the social structural elements of a society and mode of living of the Individuals. Broadly speaking, education has two important functions vis., the conservative and creative. In its conservative function# education helps in the transmission of cultural values to the Younger members of the society. Education has an important function in the modernisation of developing societies by inculcating new ideas and thought patterns to provide for change is the creative function of education. These changes in the social structure and the changes in outlook and attitude of individuals facilitate the process of modernisation. Modernization as a concept is understood differently, its focus is upon changes in stratification system, system of property ownership and ownership of IJTSRD46372 International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46372 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 44 productive resources in a nation, and not on psychological - normative variables like 'achievement orientation', 'psychic mobility' and rational hedonism, etc., common among the treatments of many social Scientists, structural breakdown in modernization, merges when due to historical or other cultural factors, the sequence of evolution is reversed or made uneven or when some of the Universal become far too rigid and offer more than normal resistance to further evolution. Buch conditions according to a later study by Buck and Jacobson (1968) prevail in the Asian nations. These nations, being ex-colonies, have many evolutionary structures like bureaucracy, democratic associations, and generalized universal latte norm introduced Into their social structure without adequate development of other basic founding universals like communication, technology stratification and principles of legitimating. This is Particularly true for countries like Indonesia, India and Pakistan (Singh, 1973, 205).The slogan of modernisation is now echoing around the world. Though used frequently both in the current literature and in speech making the term ‘modernisation’ has acquired different meanings. The economists use this term simply as another word for economic growth to be achieved mostly through man’s application of technologies to the control of natural resources. The political scientists look at modernisation as the process of government building. They are interested how governments increase their capacity to innovate change and cope with social conflict. The psychologists would emphasise self- reliance and achievement motivation essential to modernity. To the common man industrialization and automation symbolise modernisation. In machine he sees, on the one hand, increased production resulting in better comfort and higher standard of living and, on the other hand, science displacing superstition In education also modernisation implies many things. To one educationist modernisation means to spread education, to produce educated and skilled citizens and train an adequate and competent intelligentsia. To another it implies more teaching aids to make teaching-learning effective. Role of Education in the Modernisation of India:- 1. Education directly contributes to the process of modernisation. It is rightly acknowledged that human resource is the key to national advancement and a sound human resource is created and developed by education. 2. As a dynamic force of change education breaks the status quo of the traditional thinking, doing, habits, attitudes and values. It broadens the mental horizon are arouses interest in innovation and experimentation. It helps Individuals to be broad- minded and stimulates their thinking to accept new things and objects without a compromise with the old thinking and ideas. 3. Education creates a cadre of philosophers, scientists, technocrats, leaders, elite, co-planners, administrators, physician, teachers etc. who vanguard the chariot of modernisation. They are highly sensitive to the needs, demands and aspirations of, a modernized society and they work for consensus building on important issues including national and emotional integration, and above all international understanding. 4. Education, as a chief instrument of modernisation arouses, sustains, stimulates and perpetuates interest in the minds of people in the change and growth processes. Education helps in the evolution of mind which is dispassionate, and objective and enquiring. 5. Education prepares a band of knowledgeable and creative men and women by imparting appropriate value, skill and knowledge adequately who, in turn, will commit themselves to the process of modernisation. Thus, modernisation is harnessed by education. 6. Education acts as a powerful force of modernisation by developing national outlook and international understanding. It can help the pupils in knowing the latest developments in social, economic, technological, scientific and cultural domains of human life. 7. Education can help in the achievement of emotional and national integration which is the basis for establishing unity among people and for development of nation-social, cultural, economic and political and scientific aspects. 8. Education can help in accelerating the process of modernisation by fostering a democratic and secular outlook and vision among the people. Secular attitude helps in developing respect for all religions of the world and of the nation. Democratic altitude enables people to live successfully in the society with others without any difference and feelings. 9. Education helps people to prepare for future life winch is essential for modernization. It helps them to acquire all social skills for leading a better future life. And better future life accelerates the process of modernisation. Therefore, it is a powerful weapon that can accelerate the pace of modernisation in the present society for a happier and salubrious life. REVIEW OF LITERATURE:- Kim,Xie&Cheng,( 2017). Recent studies indicate that there are four dimensions of the competences of International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46372 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 45 future primary school teachers, namely: familiarization, use, integration, reorientation Different levels of competence development needs require consideration of different principles and approaches to curriculum’s development. Along with this, Ge, Han and Shen (2018) offer other dimensions of competence assessment: awareness, literacy, strategy and research. Fernàndez-Cruz & Fernàndez-Díaz, (2016). The training of primary school teachers requires the study of factors that affect the level of digital competence there is a significant deficit in preparation for the use of technology in the educational process in developed countries. For instance, the teacher’s training profile in Spainis low-average; most future teachers do not understand the essence of digital competencies; ICT resources are not used in the educational process. In case the teachers do not possess digital competences, then they are unlikely to be integrated into the educational process of primary school. In contrast, students, receiving the profession of a future teacher of primary school, highly value their own digital skills. However, the assessment of these skills indicates the need to acquire digital skills, in particular for teaching in education environment and professional development (Porln & Snchez, 2016). Lapin, (2015). The ISEDT RAS study of modernization changes contains the definition proposed by head of the Centre for Studying Socio- Cultural Changes at the RAS Institute of Philosophy, RAS Corresponding Member N.I. Lapin, namely: modernization is a process of profound, civilization changes which is conditioned by new needs of the society and an individual in a changing environment (natural and socio cultural), and its function is to enhance the abilities of the society and an individual to meet their needs. Vil’khovchenko, (2010).The mandatory conditions for the implementation of modernization in any country, in addition to the national program and modernization projects resulting from it, include adequate economic conditions, developed civil society, imposed active interaction of the government, society and business units; it is necessary to have a “social layer – a carrier of public modernization energy” (Ermolenko, 2010). “The country’s modernization implies the transition to a higher stage of civilization implemented not by coercive methods but also by revealing the cognitive potential of an individual, bringing together the interests of an individual, society and the state” (Lastochkina, 2016). The leading “force” of transformation of the society and economy is “people with a high educational level, working on the basis of knowledge and through them, able to create new knowledge, a new product, a new method, etc.” OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:- 1. To present the data on the spread and expansion of education in India. 2. To examine the role of education as an agent of modernization. 3. To explore the influence of education on the rural social structure, that is, on the institutions, groups, form of organizations, social stratification, social relationship and behaviour patterns. 4. To see the effect of education on psycho-social modernity. HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY:- H1: School-going students are more modern then non-school going adolescents. H2: Effects of education on village social structure (based on comparison of two villages one with school and another without it). H3: Effects of education on the value-orientations of students (based on comparison of school-going with non -school-going respondents). H4:Non-agricultural occupations are greater in number in the village with education and agriculture is the main occupation in the village without educational facilities. H5: Formal education leads to modernity independent of other factors (e.g. age. urban experience and mass media exposure). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: - Descriptive and comparative method was adopted to investigate and compare the differences between two villages of India.(KODARIA with school and HARSOLA without school in INDORE district) SAMPLE:- Stratified random sampling was adopted. The sample for the 30 School-going and 20 non-school-going adolescents randomly selected from village KODARIA and HARSOLA. STATISTICAL TOOL:- Interview schedule (for comparing schools going and non-school-going adolescents) and Attitudinal modernity scale developed by Sharma (1979) was used to measure the values attitudes and perceptions of school-going and non-school-going respondents. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46372 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 46 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: - Table No.5.1 Mean Modernity Score of School-going and Non-school-going Respondents Respondents Mean S.D. Variance Z Value Level of Significance School-going (N=30) 50.00 1.50 2.25 12.99 P < 0.05 Non- School-going (N=20) 42.02 2.46 6.05 The difference between the two mean is statistically significant (Z= 12.99, p < 0.05). In other words it can be said that the school-going respondents are more modern than the non-school-going respondents interviewed. Table No.5.2 Mean Modernity Score of School-going and Non-school-going Respondents by Age Age (in years) Mean- Modernity score Gain for the school- going respondents Z Value Level of Significance School-going (N=30) Non School-going (N=20) 13.14 58.00 50.11 7.89 4.11 P < 0.05 15-16 58.03 50.06 7.97 6.01 P < 0.05 17-18 58.02 50.08 7.94 6.36 P < 0.05 Conclusively, it can be said that the mean modernity score of the school-going respondents has been found to be regularly higher than that of the non-school-going group in all the age categories. The mean modernity scores of school-going respondents are higher than that of the non-school going respondents. This fact is further confirmed by the gain for the school-going respondents in all age-groups i.e. 7,39,7.97 and 7,94, The difference is statistically significant in all the age categories i.e., (Z- 4.11, p < 0.05, Z= 6.04, p <0.05 and Z = 6.36,p <0.05). Table No.5.3 Mean Modernity Score of School-going Respondents and their Father’s Socio-Economic Background Fathers' Socio-economic background Mean S.D. Variance Z Value Level of Significance High 52.17 1.05 1.103 3.23 P < 0.05 Low 51.19 1.05 1.103 There is significant difference (Z= 3.23, p < 0.05) between the students of high socio-economic background and those of low socio-economic background on modernity. Hence socio-economic status contributes significantly to the student's higher modernity, Table No.5.4 Mean Modernity Score of School-going Respondents and their Father’s Occupation Fathers' Occupation Mean S.D. Variance Z Value Level of Significance Agriculture 42.92 1.06 1.12 3.67 P < 0.05 Non Agriculture 44.20 1.40 1.96 It is evident from the above Table that there is a significant difference (z=3.67, p < 0.05) between the mean modernity score of students whose fathers are engaged in agriculture and those of non-agriculture occupation. Table No.5.5 Mean Modernity Score of School-going and Non school- going Respondents by Urban Experiences Urban Experience Mean- Modernity score Gain for the school- going respondents Z Value Level of Significance School-going (N=30) Non School- going (N=20) Low 57.35 49.59 7.76 9.65 P < 0.05 High 59.92 50.83 9.09 5.90 P < 0.05 A look at the Table 5.5 indicates that the mean modernity scores of school-going respondents are found to be higher 57.35 and 59.92 than that of non-school going respondents 49.59 and 50.83. This fact is more confirmed from the gain in the score of school-going respondents. The difference is statistically significant in both the category of low and high urban experience i.e. (Z= 9.65, p < 0.05) and (Z= 5.90, p<0.05). It can be observed from the above Table that even after exercising control on urban experience# the school- going respondents had again emerged to be more modern than the non-school-going respondents. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46372 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 47 Table No.5.6 Mean Modernity scores of School-going and Non-school-going Respondents by Media Exposure Media Exposure Mean- Modernity score Gain for the school- going respondents Z Value Level of Significance School-going (N=30) Non School- going (N=20) Low 59.50 51.62 7.88 8.02 P < 0.05 High 57.18 45.54 11.64 16.06 P < 0.05 The Table 5.6 clearly shows that the mean modernity scores of school-going respondents are found to be higher 59.50 and 57.18 in comparison to the mean modernity scores of non-school-going respondents 51.62 and 45.54. The gain in the score of school-going respondents is found to be 7.83 in the category of low media exposure. Whereas the gain in the score of school-going respondents having high media exposure found to be 11.64. The difference is statistically significant in both the category of low and high media exposure respectively i.e. (Z=8.02, p .01) and (Z=16.06# p < .01). It can be inferred from above Table that the mean modernity score of school-going students is found to be higher than that of the non-school-going respondents even after exercising control on the media exposure. Table No.5.7 Dimension-wise Mean Scores of School-going and Non-school-going Respondents Dimension Mean- Modernity score Gain for the school- going respondents Z Value Level of Significance School-going (N=30) Non School- going (N=20) Secular 6.04 5.42 0.62 4.37 P < 0.05 Scientific 9.22 8.94 0.28 0.86 P > 0.05 * Universalistic 11.90 8.12 3.78 9.54 P < 0.05 Independence 7.72 7.16 0.56 2.45 P < 0.05 Achievement 10.26 8.34 1.92 5.68 P < 0.05 Civic 12.88 12.06 0.82 3.92 P < 0.05 *Not Significant The Table 5.7 indicates that there is a small difference in the mean scores ranging from 5.42 to 8, 94 of the non- school going respondents on the five dimensions of modernity except Civic dimension which has got a higher mean score of 12.06, whereas in the case of the school-going respondents mean scores are quite large ranging from 6.04 to 12.88. The dimension-wise analysis further shows that the score of the school-going respondents is found to be higher than that of the non-school-going respondents on all the dimensions. The difference was statistically significant also on all the dimensions, except the scientific orientation. The Z value for secular dimension is 4.37 with 0.05 level of significance, for universalistic 9.54 with 0.05 level of significance, for independence 2.45 with 0.05 level of significance, achievement 5.68 with 0.05 level of significance and civic orientation 3.92 with 0.05 level of significance. The Z value for scientific dimension is 0.86 which is not significant. Table 5.7 also indicates that the difference in the mean score between these two groups is larger on the universalistic and achievement orientations (3.78 and 1.92 respectively). Thus, it can be inferred that school education highly promotes the development of universalistic and the achievement orientations, whereas it is less conducive to the growth of the scientific, independence, secular and civic orientations. FINDINGS: - The findings of this study Indicate that education is directly or indirectly responsible for the changes of traditional village towards modernisation. The following theoretical inferences can be drawn on the basis of findings of this study, 1. Social structural elements of the villages are undergoing changes due to education. Family, occupation and fertility behaviour of the village with education shows a trend of change than that of the village without formal educational system. But the change is not significant except in case of occupation. 2. The educated people respond differently from the uneducated people on the questions pertaining to joint family, monogamy, age at marriage, agricultural occupations, inter-status interaction, status of women, purdah system and religiosity. 3. It can he said that the school is a powerful promoter of student modernity, Ait the school education does not promote all the dimensions of modernity equally. It is more conducive to the International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46372 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 48 promotion of the civic, universal is tie and achievement orientations and is less conducive to the development of the secular, independence and scientific orientations. 4. The educational variables are more powerful facilitators of modernity. Whereas the familial variables are Subordinate to the educational variables, as they Prepare the ground for the students entry into the School, nothing worthwhile could be achieved without proper education, without the knowledge of the various factors that affect the education of a child and without knowing the extent to which each factor is responsible in contributing towards all round development of the child, Progress in any field depends on the pattern and standard of education in a country. Implications of the Study:- The study has following implications: The school-going students are significantly more modern than the non-school-going respondents and the school has been found as a powerful Predictor of student modernity. The study also reveals that the education does not promote the scientific, Independent and secular orientations as efficiently as it promotes the universalistic and the achievement orientations, thus calling for a change in the value- content of the educational system. It should he modified in such a manner that it may be equally conducive to the promotion of the scientific, secular and independence orientations along with other psycho-social dispositions and in the long run, may serve as a medium of character transformation. The findings of this study also indicate that education up to secondary stage significantly influences the student modernity, Hence the government should allocate larger funds to promote secondary education and sincere efforts should be made to bring it within the reach of every eligible child. REFRENCES: -  Meenaza Manzoor, Padder Burhan M., Dubey M. 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