effects on Social Security of H.R. 6489

Dec 22, 2016 | Publisher: edocr | Category: Civic & Government |  | Collection: Policy Reports | Views: 24 | Likes: 1

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION BALTIMORE, MD 21235-0001 SOCIAL SECURITY Office of the Chief Actuary December 8, 2016 The Honorable Sam Johnson Subcommittee on Social Security Committee on Ways and Means United States House of Representatives Washington, D.C. 20515 Dear Chairman Johnson: I am writing in response to your request for estimates of the financial effects on Social Security of H.R. 6489, the Social Security Reform Act of 2016, which you introduced today. The estimates provided here reflect the intermediate assumptions of the 2016 Trustees Report. This Bill (hereafter referred to as the proposal) includes fifteen provisions with direct effects on the Social Security Trust Funds. The estimates and analysis provided here reflect the combined effort of many in the Office of the Chief Actuary, but most particularly Karen Glenn, Christopher Chaplain, Daniel Nickerson, Kyle Burkhalter, Michael Clingman, Anna Kirjusina, Katie Sutton, and Tiffany Bosley. The enclosed tables provide estimates of the effects of the fifteen provisions on the cost, income, and combined trust fund reserves for the Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program, as well as estimated effects on retired worker benefit levels for selected hypothetical workers. In addition, tables 1b and 1b.n provide estimates of the federal budget implications of the fifteen provisions. Assuming enactment of the plan, we estimate that the combined OASI and DI Trust Funds would be fully solvent (able to pay all scheduled benefits in full on a timely basis) throughout the 75-year projection period, under the intermediate assumptions of the 2016 Trustees Report. In addition, under this plan the OASDI program would meet the further conditions for sustainable solvency, because projected combined trust fund reserves would be growing as a percentage of the annual cost of the program at the end of the long-range period. While we estimate that the provisions of this proposal would make the combined OASI and DI Trust Funds solvent throughout the 75-year projection period under the intermediate assumptions of the 2016 Trustees Report, the two trust funds are separate legal entities. Some modification of the allocation of the total payroll tax rate between the OASI Trust Fund and the DI Trust Fund might be necessary to ensure that both trust funds would remain solvent for the next 75 years under these assumptions. The proposal includes fifteen basic provisions with direct effects on the OASDI program. The following list briefly identifies each provision: Page 2 – The Honorable Sam Johnson 1) For retired worker and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming initially eligible in January 2023 or later, phase in a new benefit formula (from 2023 to 2032). Replace the existing two PIA bend points with three new bend points and modified benefit formula factors. 2) Use an annualized “mini-PIA” formula beginning with retired and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2023, phased in over 10 years. The mini-PIA calculation would use a single year’s average monthly indexed earnings (mini-AIME) and primary insurance amount (mini-PIA) for each year with taxable earnings. 3) Replace the current-law Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP) with a new calculation for most OASI and DI benefits based on covered and non-covered earnings, phased in for beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2023 through 2032. 4) After the normal retirement age (NRA) reaches 67 for those attaining age 62 in 2022, increase the NRA by 3 months per year starting for those attaining age 62 in 2023 until it reaches 69 for those attaining age 62 in 2030. Increase the age up to which delayed retirement credits may be earned from 70 to 72 on the same schedule. 5) Beginning with the December 2018 COLA, provide no COLA for those with modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) above specific thresholds and compute the COLA using the chain-weighted version of the CPI-U (C-CPI-U) for all other beneficiaries. 6) For spouses and children of retired workers and disabled workers becoming newly eligible beginning in 2023 and phased in for 2023 through 2032, limit their auxiliary benefit to the amount based on one-half of the PIA of a hypothetical worker with earnings equal to the national average wage index (AWI) each year up to his or her eligibility year, and who has the same eligibility year as the worker. 7) Beginning in January 2019, require full time school enrollment as a condition of eligibility for child benefits at age 15 up to 18. 8) Provide a new minimum benefit for workers with more than 10 years of covered earnings above a specified level, phased in for retired and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2023 through 2032. 9) Beginning in January 2019, eliminate the retirement earnings test for all beneficiaries under NRA. 10) Eliminate federal income taxation of OASDI benefits that is credited to the OASI and DI Trust Funds for 2054 and later, phased in from 2045 to 2053. 11) Provide an option to split the 8-percent delayed retirement credit (DRC) to offer a lump sum benefit at initial entitlement equivalent to 2 of the 8 percent DRC earned, and a 6 percent DRC on subsequent monthly benefits, effective for workers attaining age 62 in 2023 and later. Page 3 – The Honorable Sam Johnson 12) Beginning in January 2023, provide an addition to monthly benefits for all beneficiaries who have been eligible for at least 20 years. The additional amount is calculated based on 5 percent of the PIA for a hypothetical worker with earnings equal to the national average wage index each year. 13) Beginning in January 2023, for new and current disabled widow(er) beneficiaries, change the requirement that disability must occur no later than 7 years after the worker’s death, or after surviving spouse with child-in-care benefits were last payable, to no later than 10 years. 14) Beginning in January 2023, for new and current disabled surviving spouse beneficiaries, eliminate the requirement to be age 50 or older for receipt of benefits. 15) Beginning in January 2023, for new and current beneficiaries, waive the two-year duration of divorce requirement for divorced spouse benefit eligibility in cases where the worker (former spouse) remarries someone other than the claimant before the two-year period has elapsed. The balance of this letter provides a summary of the effects of the fifteen provisions on the actuarial status of the OASDI program, our understanding of the specifications and intent of each of the fifteen provisions, and descriptions of our detailed financial estimates for trust fund operations, benefit levels, and implications for the federal budget. See the “Specification for Provisions of the Proposal” section of this letter for a more detailed description of these fifteen provisions. Summary of Effects of the Proposal on OASDI Actuarial Status Figure 1 illustrates the projected trust fund ratio through 2090 under present law and assuming enactment of the proposal. The trust fund ratio is defined as the combined Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) and Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Fund reserves expressed as a percent of annual program cost. Assuming enactment of the proposal, the combined OASI and DI Trust Funds would be fully solvent throughout the 75-year projection period, under the intermediate assumptions of the 2016 Trustees Report. In addition, because the projected trust fund ratio is increasing at the end of the period, the plan meets the conditions for sustainable solvency. It should be noted, however, that because the projected level of reserves reaches as low as 10 percent of annual program cost around 2045, unexpected fluctuations in the economy or other factors affecting program cost or revenue could require additional temporary measures to maintain solvency through this period. Page 4 – The Honorable Sam Johnson Note: Trust Fund Ratio for a given year is the ratio of reserves in the combined OASI and DI Trust Funds at the beginning of the year to the cost of the program for the year. Under current law, 79 percent of scheduled benefits are projected to be payable on a timely basis in 2034 after depletion of the combined trust fund reserves, with the percentage payable declining to 74 percent for 2090. Under the plan, the OASDI program would be solvent throughout the 75-year projection period, and would have the ability to pay 100 percent of scheduled benefits on a timely basis for the foreseeable future. Enactment of the fifteen provisions of this proposal would change the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit from 2.66 percent of taxable payroll under current law to a positive actuarial balance of 0.02 percent of payroll under the proposal. Figure 2 illustrates annual projected levels of cost, expenditures, and non-interest income as a percent of the current-law taxable payroll. The projected level of cost reflects the full cost of scheduled benefits under both current law and the proposal. Under the proposal, projected expenditures equal the full cost of scheduled benefits throughout the long-range period. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 2016 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 Tr us t F un d Ra tio Figure 1. Present Law and Proposal OASDI Trust Fund Reserves as Percent of Annual Cost: 2016 TR Intermediate Assumptions Present Law Trust Fund Ratio Proposal Page 5 – The Honorable Sam Johnson OASDI program annual cost under the proposal is higher than under current law, starting in 2019. This difference decreases and by 2022, annual cost under the proposal is lower than under current law. The reduction in cost grows quickly through 2055, reaching over 4 percent of current-law payroll, and then gradually, reaching about 5.5 percent of current-law payroll for 2090. Beginning in 2019, non-interest income under the proposal is projected to be slightly higher than under current law through 2022. For 2023 and later, non-interest income under the proposal is lower than under current law due to reduced and eventual elimination of revenue from income taxation of benefits, with the difference increasing to 0.9 percent of current-law payroll for 2090. The annual balance (non-interest income minus program cost) under the proposal is slightly worse (more negative) than under current law from 2019 through 2021. For 2022 and later, the proposal improves the annual balance. It is also useful to consider the projected cost, expenditures, and income for the OASDI program expressed as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Figure 3 illustrates these levels under both current law and the proposal. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2016 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 Pe rc en t o f P re se nt -L aw Ta xa bl e Pa yr ol l Figure 2. Proposal and Present Law Cost, Expenditures, and Non-Interest Income as Percent of Taxable Payroll: 2016 TR Intermediate Assumptions Present Law Cost Present Law Non-Interest Income Present Law Expenditures Proposal Cost Proposal Non-Interest Income Proposal Expenditures Page 6 – The Honorable Sam Johnson Specification for Provisions of the Proposal 1) For retired worker and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming initially eligible in January 2023 or later, phase in a new benefit formula (from 2023 to 2032). Replace the existing two PIA bend points with three new bend points and modified benefit formula factors. The three new bend points are at 25 percent, 100 percent, and 125 percent of one-twelfth the AWI from two years prior to initial eligibility. The new PIA factors are 95 percent, 27.5 percent, 5 percent, and 2 percent. During the phase-in, those becoming newly eligible for benefits will receive an increasing portion of their benefits based on the new formula, from 10 percent based on the new formula in 2023 to 100 percent based on the new formula for those becoming newly eligible in 2032 and later. This provision applies to all individuals receiving benefits on the account of a retired, disabled, or deceased worker. The new PIA formula would result in slightly higher benefit amounts for workers with average indexed earnings levels below 90 percent of the AWI, and lower benefit levels for those with higher average indexed earnings. Assuming enactment of this provision, we estimate that 51 percent of worker beneficiaries would have a higher PIA than under current law, and 49 percent would have a lower PIA. 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 2016 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 Pe rc en t o f G DP Figure 3. Proposal and Present Law Cost, Expenditures, and Non-Interest Income as Percent of GDP: 2016 TR Intermediate Assumptions Present Law Cost Present Law Non-Interest Income Present Law Expenditures Proposal Cost Proposal Non-Interest Income Proposal Expenditures Page 7 – The Honorable Sam Johnson We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would reduce the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.85 percent of taxable payroll and would reduce the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 1.53 percent of payroll. 2) Use an annualized “mini-PIA” formula beginning with retired and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2023, phased in over 10 years. The mini-PIA calculation would use a single year’s average monthly indexed earnings (mini-AIME) and primary insurance amount (mini-PIA) for each year with taxable earnings. For each year of earnings (indexed as under current law in a monthly equivalent form), for retired workers compute an individual PIA. Sum these individual PIAs for the 35 highest years and divide that total amount by 35 to get the PIA under this provision. For disabled and deceased workers, the number of highest mini-PIA years would equal the number of current-law benefit computation years. Phase-in over ten years, meaning that in 2023, 90 percent of the benefit would be based on the old PIA formula and 10 percent on the new mini-PIA formula, shifting by 10 percentage points each year until 100 percent is based on the new mini-PIA formula for becoming newly eligible in 2032 and later. This provision applies to all individuals receiving benefits on the account of a retired, disabled, or deceased worker. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would reduce the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.34 percent of taxable payroll and would reduce the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 0.59 percent of payroll. 3) Replace the current-law Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP) with a new calculation for most OASI and DI benefits based on covered and non-covered earnings, phased in for beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2023 through 2032. For this new approach, compute a PIA based on all past earnings (covered and non-covered), and multiply by the “non-covered earnings ratio.” This ratio is equal to the current-law concept of the average indexed monthly earnings computed without non-covered earnings divided by a modified average indexed monthly earnings that includes both covered and non-covered earnings in our records. Another way to describe the new approach is that beneficiaries will receive a benefit that reflects the replacement rate applicable for a worker with the same career earnings, where all earnings had been covered. In the context of this overall proposal, the new approach under this provision would be applied for each individual year of earnings in order to compute modified mini-PIA amounts. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would reduce the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.03 percent of taxable payroll and would reduce the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 0.05 percent of payroll. 4) After the normal retirement age (NRA) reaches 67 for those attaining age 62 in 2022, increase the NRA by 3 months per year starting for those attaining age 62 in 2023 until it reaches 69 for those attaining age 62 in 2030. Increase the age up to which delayed retirement credits may be earned from 70 to 72 on the same schedule. Page 8 – The Honorable Sam Johnson As the NRA is increased, the potential number of years of early entitlement (prior to NRA) for retired worker, aged spouse, and aged widow(er) benefits will increase, ultimately by 2 years. For retired worker and aged spouse benefits, the additional reduction to monthly benefits for early entitlement between 5 and 7 years will be at the rate of 4.5 percentage points per year (9/24 percentage point per month). For aged widow(er) benefits, the reduction of 28.5 percent will be retained for new entitlement at age 60 (as well as for disabled widow(er) benefits), and will be phased linearly as under current law to no reduction for age when newly entitled at NRA or above. The earliest eligibility age (EEA) for worker, spouse, and widow(er)’s benefits is unchanged. In addition to increasing the NRA, increase the age up to which delayed retirement credits may be earned from 70 to 72 on the same schedule. Increase the widow(er) NRA in the same manner. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would reduce the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.84 percent of taxable payroll and would reduce the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 1.33 percent of payroll. 5) Beginning with the December 2018 COLA, provide no COLA for those with modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) above specific thresholds and compute the COLA using the chain-weighted version of the CPI-U (C-CPI-U) for all other beneficiaries. For single/head-of-household/married-filing-separate taxpayers with MAGI below $85,000 and for joint filers with MAGI below $170,000 for the prior tax year, use the chain-weighted version of the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U) to calculate the cost-of-living adjustment (COLA), beginning with the December 2018 COLA. For those beneficiaries whose MAGI is above $85,000 ($170,000 if filed jointly) for the prior tax year, provide no COLA. Index the eligibility income threshold amounts to the CPI-U after December 2018. These thresholds are the Medicare Income Related Monthly Adjustment Amount (IRMAA) and are indexed in the same way. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would reduce the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 1.25 percent of taxable payroll and would reduce the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 2.31 percent of payroll. 6) For spouses and children of retired workers and disabled workers becoming newly eligible beginning in 2023 and phased in for 2023 through 2032, limit their auxiliary benefit to the amount based on one-half of the PIA of a hypothetical worker with earnings equal to the national average wage index (AWI) each year up to his or her eligibility year, and who has the same eligibility year as the worker. For retired workers, the PIA is calculated as of age 62 and is increased by COLAs thereafter. For disabled workers, the PIA is calculated as of the year of benefit eligibility and is increased by COLAs thereafter. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would reduce the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.07 percent of taxable payroll and would reduce the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 0.11 percent of payroll. Page 9 – The Honorable Sam Johnson 7) Beginning in January 2019, require full time school enrollment as a condition of eligibility for child benefits at age 15 up to 18. Under current law, children of qualifying retired, disabled, or deceased workers can receive benefits on the worker’s account regardless of school attendance up to age 18. Children attending elementary, middle, or high school can continue to receive benefits up to age 19. This provision would require full time school enrollment for children age 15 up to age 18 in order to be eligible for benefits. Eligibility for disabled adult child benefits after attaining age 18 would be unchanged. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would reduce the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.01 percent of taxable payroll and would reduce the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 0.01 percent of payroll. 8) Provide a new minimum benefit for workers with more than 10 years of covered earnings above a specified level, phased in for retired and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2023 through 2032. Under this provision, the PIA based on any worker’s account would be set at the higher of (a) the amount based on the standard PIA computation or (b) a percentage of the AWI from the second year prior to initial eligibility. The percentage under (b) would be set at zero percent of AWI for those with 10 or fewer years of work (YOWs), rising to 15 percent of AWI for those with 15 YOWs, then increasing linearly to 19 percent of AWI for those with 19 YOWs. Then the minimum PIA would jump to 25 percent of AWI for those with 20 YOWs, increasing linearly to 35 percent of AWI for those with 35 or more YOWs. A YOW is equal to earnings at or above $10,875 in 2017 (reflecting a full-time worker earning the federal minimum wage), adjusted thereafter for average wage growth. Scale the YOW requirements for disabled workers, based on years of non-disability. Use the AWI for two years prior to the year of initial eligibility in the minimum PIA calculation with COLA increases after the year of initial eligibility. This provision applies to all individuals receiving benefits on the account of a retired, disabled, or deceased worker. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would increase the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.23 percent of taxable payroll and would increase the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 0.41 percent of payroll. 9) Beginning in January 2019, eliminate the retirement earnings test for all beneficiaries under NRA. Under this provision, all beneficiaries under NRA would be exempt, including retired workers, aged spouses, aged widow(er)s, young spouses with a child in care, surviving spouses with a child in care, and children. Because beneficiaries at or above NRA are already exempt from the retirement earnings test under current law, this provision would completely eliminate the retirement earnings test for all beneficiaries. Page 10 – The Honorable Sam Johnson We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would reduce the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.01 percent of taxable payroll and would reduce the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 0.12 percent of payroll. 10) Eliminate federal income taxation of OASDI benefits that is credited to the OASI and DI Trust Funds for 2054 and later, phased in from 2045 to 2053. Under current law, single tax filers with combined “income” (approximately equal to adjusted gross income plus non-taxable interest income and one-half of their Social Security benefit) greater than $25,000 may have to pay income tax on up to 50 percent of the benefits. If combined “income” exceeds $34,000, up to 85 percent of the benefits may be taxable. The income tax revenue for taxing up to 50 percent of Social Security benefits goes to the OASI and DI Trust Funds. The additional income tax revenue derived from taxing benefits in excess of 50 percent, up to 85 percent, goes to the Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund. The process is similar for joint tax filers, with $32,000 and $44,000 thresholds applying for possible taxation of up to 50 percent or 85 percent of the Social Security benefits, respectively. All threshold levels are fixed amounts and not indexed to price inflation or average wage increase. Under this provision, the $25,000/$32,000 thresholds would increase from 2045 to 2053, and taxation of OASDI benefits that is credited to the OASI and DI Trust Funds would be completely eliminated starting in 2054. The 2045 to 2053 thresholds for single and joint filers would be as follows: • 2045: $32,500/$65,000 • 2046: $40,000/$80,000 • 2047: $47,500/$95,000 • 2048: $55,000/$110000 • 2049: $62,500/$125,000 • 2050: $70,000/$140,000 • 2051: $77,500/$155,000 • 2052: $85,000/$170,000 • 2053: $92,500/$185,000. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would increase the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.40 percent of taxable payroll and would increase the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 0.96 percent of payroll. Note that the HI Trust Fund would be held harmless relative to current law, with respect to taxation of benefit revenues. 11) Provide an option to split the 8-percent delayed retirement credit (DRC) to offer a lump sum benefit at initial entitlement equivalent to 2 of the 8 percent DRC earned, and a 6 percent DRC on subsequent monthly benefits, effective for workers attaining age 62 in 2023 and later. Those attaining age 62 in 2023 or later have the option to split the current-law 8 percent DRC into two parts, a credit and a lump sum. The credit equals 6 percent for each year (0.5 percent for each month) that eligible benefits are not taken within three years after reaching NRA. The lump Page 11 – The Honorable Sam Johnson sum is equal to the present value at the time of selecting the option of the additional future monthly benefits the worker is foregoing by taking the 6 percent rather than the full 8 percent DRC. Widows are held harmless from the lump sum decision, meaning that the full 8 percent will apply for widow benefits, even when the deceased worker had elected to take the lump sum option. We estimate that the change in the long-range OASDI annual balance and the change in the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) from enactment of this provision alone would be negligible: that is, between -0.005 and 0.005 percent of taxable payroll. 12) Beginning in January 2023, provide an addition to monthly benefits for all beneficiaries who have been eligible for at least 20 years. The additional amount is calculated based on 5 percent of the PIA for a hypothetical worker with earnings equal to the national average wage index each year. Beginning in January 2023, augment the monthly benefit amount (not the PIA) for those of qualifying age and eligibility duration with an MAGI below $25,000 if single and below $50,000 if married. Use the Medicare IRMAA definition of MAGI (AGI plus tax-exempt interest income). For this provision, these thresholds are indexed for years after 2023 by the increase in the C-CPI-U. The full additional amount is applicable for those born in 1957 and later, once 24 years elapse from initial eligibility. The basic additional amount is calculated as 5 percent of the PIA of for a hypothetical worker with earnings equal to the AWI each year. For those born prior to 1957, the full additional amount is multiplied by the number of years they have been affected by the C-CPI-U, divided by 24. Beneficiaries will receive 20 percent of their additional amount in their 20th year after initial benefit eligibility, 40 percent in their 21st year after initial eligibility, …, and 100 percent of their additional amount in their 24th and later years after initial benefit eligibility. Retired and disabled worker beneficiaries, dually entitled spouse beneficiaries, and all survivor beneficiaries receive their addition as described above. Spousal beneficiaries (aged or with a child in care) and child beneficiaries of a living retired or disabled worker receive 50 percent of the additional amount described above. Other beneficiary types (such as parents of deceased workers) will receive the percentage of the flat benefit that is equal to the percentage of the insured worker’s PIA that they receive. The AWI used is for the second year prior to the beneficiary’s initial eligibility year, with applicable COLAs applied up to the age when the addition is received. The additional amount is added to the monthly benefit after reductions for early claiming or increases for delayed claiming have been applied. We estimate that enactment of this provision alone would increase the long-range OASDI actuarial deficit by 0.07 percent of taxable payroll and would increase the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) by 0.07 percent of payroll. Page 12 – The Honorable Sam Johnson 13) Beginning in January 2023, for new and current disabled widow(er) beneficiaries, change the requirement that disability must occur no later than 7 years after the worker’s death, or after surviving spouse with child-in-care benefits were last payable, to no later than 10 years. We estimate that the change in the long-range OASDI annual balance and the change in the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) from enactment of this provision alone would be negligible: that is, between -0.005 and 0.005 percent of taxable payroll. 14) Beginning in January 2023, for new and current disabled surviving spouse beneficiaries, eliminate the requirement to be age 50 or older for receipt of benefits. Under current law, widow(er)s must attain age 50 in order to qualify for benefits as widow(er)s on the basis of being disabled. This provision would remove the age-50 requirement. We estimate that the change in the long-range OASDI annual balance and the change in the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) from enactment of this provision alone would be negligible: that is, between -0.005 and 0.005 percent of taxable payroll. 15) Beginning in January 2023, for new and current beneficiaries, waive the two-year duration of divorce requirement for divorced spouse benefit eligibility in cases where the worker (former spouse) remarries someone other than the claimant before the two-year period has elapsed. We estimate that the change in the long-range OASDI annual balance and the change in the annual deficit for the 75th projection year (2090) from enactment of this provision alone would be negligible: that is, between -0.005 and 0.005 percent of taxable payroll. Detailed Financial Results for the Provisions of the Proposal Summary Results by Provision Table A provides estimates of the effects on the OASDI long-range actuarial balance for each of the fifteen provisions of the proposal separately and on a combined basis. The table also includes estimates of the effect of each provision on the annual balance (the difference between income rate and the cost rate, expressed as a percent of current-law taxable payroll) for the 75th projection year, 2090. Interaction among individual provisions is reflected only in the total estimates for the combined provisions. Benefit Illustrations Tables B1 and B2 provide illustrative examples of the projected change in benefit levels under the fifteen provisions that affect benefit levels for beneficiaries retiring at age 65 in future years at five selected earnings levels, with selected numbers of years of work. The “Maximum-AIME Steady Earner” is assumed to have earnings at ages 22 through 64 that equal the current-law taxable maximum level (equivalent to $118,500 for 2016). Table B3 provides additional important information on characteristics of retired workers represented by these illustrations. Page 13 – The Honorable Sam Johnson Table B1 compares the initial scheduled benefit levels, assuming retirement at age 65 under the provisions of the proposal, to both scheduled and payable current-law benefit levels. Benefit amounts scheduled under the proposal are generally lower than those scheduled in current law, because the three provisions included in the table that decrease benefits for most workers (NRA increase, COLA decrease, mini-PIA) generally outweigh the other two provisions included (change the PIA formula, increase the minimum benefit). Note that two of the hypothetical worker examples provided have higher benefits than scheduled under current law because of the minimum benefit provision. The final two columns of this table show the level of scheduled benefits under the proposal as a percentage of current-law scheduled and current-law payable benefits, respectively. Table B2 compares the change in scheduled benefit levels at ages 65, 75, 85, and 95 under the proposal to scheduled benefits under current law, assuming retirement at age 65. Table B2 shows that projected scheduled benefits under the provisions of the proposal decrease in relation to current-law scheduled benefits between ages 65 and 75 for most earners. The benefit addition increases proposal benefits for ages 85 and 95 above the level scheduled in current-law for several hypothetical lower-earner examples, and diminishes the decrease relative to current-law scheduled benefits for other earners. The hypothetical workers represented in these tables reflect average career-earnings patterns of workers who started receiving retirement benefits under the Social Security program in recent years. The tables subdivide workers with very low and low career-average earnings levels by their numbers of years of non-zero earnings. Table B3 provides information helpful in interpreting the benefit illustrations in tables B1 and B2. Percentages in Table B3 are based on tabulations from a 10-percent sample of newly-entitled retired workers in 2007. Table B3 displays the percentages of these newly-entitled retired workers in 2007 that are closest to each of the illustrative examples and are: 1) “Dually Entitled”, meaning they received a higher spouse or widow(er) benefit based on the career earnings of their husband or wife, 2) “WEP” (Windfall Elimination Provision), meaning that they received a reduced benefit due to having a pension based on earnings that were not covered under the OASDI program (primarily certain government workers), and they had less than 30 years of substantial earnings that were taxable under the OASDI program, 3) “Foreign Born”, meaning that they entered the Social Security coverage area after birth (and generally after entering working ages), and 4) “All Others”, meaning they had none of the three characteristics listed above. The extent to which retired-worker beneficiaries represented by each of the illustrative examples have any of the characteristics listed above (dually entitled, WEP, foreign born) is important because such individuals are less dependent on the OASDI benefit that relates to their own career-average earnings level. Page 14 – The Honorable Sam Johnson Detailed Tables Containing Annual and Summary Projections Enclosed with this letter are tables 1, 1a, 1b, 1b.n, 1c, and 1d, which provide annual and summary projections for the proposal. Trust Fund Operations Table 1 provides projections of the financial operations of the OASDI program under the proposal and shows that the combined OASDI Trust Funds would be fully solvent throughout the 75-year projection period. The OASDI program would also be solvent for the foreseeable future (sustainably solvent), because the OASDI trust fund ratio is projected to rise by the end of the period, 2091. As mentioned earlier, however, the relatively low trust fund ratios projected around 2045 provide only a small contingency reserve for solvency. Unforeseen economic conditions or other events affecting benefits and revenue might require additional measures around that time. The table shows the annual cost and income rates, annual balances, and trust fund ratios (reserves as percent of annual program cost) for OASDI, as well as the change from current law in these cost rates, income rates, and annual balances. Included at the bottom of this table are summarized rates for the 75-year (long-range) period. The annual balance (non-interest income minus program cost) under the proposal is slightly worse (more negative) than under current law from 2019 through 2021. For 2022 and later, the proposal improves the annual balance. The improvement in the annual balance increases to 3.7 percent of payroll for 2053, drops to 3.3 for 2054 (due to the full elimination of OASDI taxation of benefits starting in that year), and thereafter increases steadily to 4.5 percent of payroll for 2090. Under the proposal, the annual deficit generally worsens from 1.1 percent of payroll for 2016 to 2.1 percent of payroll for 2028, and then improves until the annual balance turns positive for 2045. The annual balance increases to 0.5 percent of payroll for 2053, drops to 0.2 percent of payroll for 2054, and then stays relatively stable through the end of the long-range period, ultimately reaching 0.2 percent of payroll for 2090. Under current law, the projected annual deficit for 2090 is 4.3 percent of payroll. The actuarial balance for the OASDI program over the 75-year projection period is improved by 2.67 percent of taxable payroll, from an actuarial deficit of 2.66 percent of payroll under current law to a positive actuarial balance of 0.02 percent of taxable payroll under the proposal. Program Transfers and Trust Fund Reserves Column 4 of Table 1a provides a projection of the level of reserves for the theoretical combined OASI and DI Trust Funds, assuming enactment of the fifteen Social Security provisions of the proposal. These trust fund reserve amounts are expressed in present value dollars discounted to January 1, 2016. The table indicates that the provisions include no new specified transfers of general revenue to the trust funds. For purpose of comparison, the OASDI Trust Fund reserves, expressed in present value dollars, are also shown for the current-law Social Security program both without and with the added proposal general fund transfers (zero in this case) in columns 6 and 7. Page 15 – The Honorable Sam Johnson Note that negative values in columns 6 and 7 represent the “unfunded obligation” for the program through the year. The unfunded obligation is the present value of the shortfall of revenue needed to pay full scheduled benefits on a timely basis from the date of trust fund reserve depletion through the end of the indicated year. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), expressed in present value dollars, is shown in column 5 for comparison with other values in the table. Effect of the Social Security Provisions on the Federal Budget Table 1b shows the projected effect, in present value discounted dollars, on the federal budget (unified-budget and on-budget) annual cash flows and balances, assuming enactment of the fifteen Social Security provisions of the proposal. Table 1b.n provides the estimated nominal dollar effect of enactment of the proposal on annual budget balances for years 2016 through 2026. All values in these tables represent the amount of change from the level projected under current law. In addition, changes reflect the budget scoring convention that presumes benefits, not payable under the law after depletion of trust fund reserves, would still be paid using revenue provided from the General Fund of the Treasury. The reader should be cautioned that this presumption of payment of benefits beyond the resources of the trust funds is prohibited under current law and is also inconsistent with all past experience under the Social Security program. We understand that the elimination of taxation of Social Security benefits under provision 10 is intended to hold the Medicare HI Trust Fund harmless. The tables provided here for effects on the budget do not reflect any change based on revenue provided to HI from taxing OASDI benefits. Column 1 of Table 1b shows the added proposal general fund transfers (zero for this proposal). Column 2 shows the net changes in OASDI cash flow from all provisions of the proposal. We expect the net effect of the proposal on unified budget cash flow (column 3) to be negative in years 2019 through 2021, and then positive in years 2022 and later, with the decrease in program cost more than offsetting income decreases. Column 4 of Table 1b indicates that the effect of implementing the proposal is a reduction of the federal debt held by the public, reaching about $11.9 trillion in present value at the end of the 75- year projection period. Column 5 provides the projected effect of the proposal on the annual unified budget balances, including both the cash flow effect in column 3 and the additional interest on the accumulated debt in column 4. Columns 6 and 7 indicate that the provisions of this proposal would have no expected direct effects on the on-budget cash flow, or on the total federal debt, in the future. It is important to note that we base these estimates on the intermediate assumptions of the 2016 Trustees Report, so these estimates are not consistent with estimates made by the Office of Management and Budget or the Congressional Budget Office based on their assumptions. In particular, all present values are discounted using trust fund yield assumptions under the intermediate assumptions of the 2016 Trustees Report. Page 16 – The Honorable Sam Johnson Annual Trust Fund Operations as a Percent of GDP Table 1c provides annual cost, annual expenditures (amount that would be payable), and annual tax income for the OASDI program expressed as a percentage of GDP for both current law and assuming enactment of the fifteen Social Security provisions of the proposal. Showing the annual trust fund cash flows as a percent of GDP provides an additional perspective on these trust fund operations in relation to the total value of goods and services produced in the United States. The relationship between income and cost is similar when expressed as a percent of GDP to that when expressed as a percent of taxable payroll (Table 1). Effects on Trust Fund Reserves and Unfunded Obligations Table 1d provides estimates of the changes in trust fund reserves and unfunded obligations on an annual basis. Values in this table are expressed in present value dollars discounted to January 1, 2016. For the 75-year (long-range) period as a whole, the current-law unfunded obligation of $11.4 trillion is replaced by a positive trust fund reserve of $0.6 trillion in present value assuming enactment of the proposal. This change of $11.9 trillion results from: • A $2.0 trillion net decrease in revenue (column 2), primarily from eliminating OASDI taxation of benefits in 2054 and later, minus • A $13.9 trillion net decrease in cost (column 3), primarily from increasing the NRA, reducing (and, for some, eliminating) the COLA, using a “mini-PIA” calculation, and modifying the PIA bend points and factors. We hope these estimates are helpful. Please let me know if we may provide further assistance. Sincerely, Stephen C. Goss, ASA, MAAA Chief Actuary Enclosures Table A—Estimated Long-Range OASDI Financial Effects of H.R. 6489, the “Social Security Reform Act of 2016,” Introduced by Chairman Sam Johnson Provision Estimated Change in Long-Range OASDI Actuarial Balance 1 (as a percent of payroll) Estimated Change in Annual Balance for 75th year 2 (as a percent of payroll) 1) For retired worker and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming initially eligible in January 2023 or later, phase in a new benefit formula (from 2023 to 2032). Replace the existing two primary insurance amount (PIA) bend points with three new bend points as follows: • 25% AWI/12 from 2 years prior to initial eligibility • 100% AWI/12 from 2 years prior to initial eligibility • 125% AWI/12 from 2 years prior to initial eligibility The new PIA factors are 95%, 27.5%, 5% and 2%. During the phase in, those becoming newly eligible for benefits will receive an increasing portion of their benefits based on the new formula, reaching 100% of the new formula in 2032 ............................................ 0.85 1.53 2) Use an annualized “mini-PIA” formula beginning with retired and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2023, phased in over 10 years. For each year of earnings (indexed as under current law in a monthly equivalent form), compute a single year’s PIA For retired workers, sum these individual PIAs for the 35 highest years of indexed earnings and divide that total amount by 35 to get the PIA under this provision. For disabled workers, the number of highest mini-PIA years would equal the number of current-law benefit computation years. Phase-in over ten years, meaning that in 2023, 90 percent of the benefit would be based on the old PIA formula and 10 percent on the new mini-PIA formula, shifting by 10 percentage points each year until 100 percent is based on the new mini-PIA formula for those becoming newly eligible in 2032 and later ......................................................................................... 0.34 0.59 3) Replace the current-law WEP with a new calculation for most OASI and DI benefits based on covered and non-covered earnings, phased in for beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2023 to through 2032. For this new approach, compute a PIA based on all past earnings (covered and non-covered), and multiply by the “non- covered earnings ratio.” This ratio is equal to the current-law concept of the average indexed monthly earnings computed without non-covered earnings divided by a modified average indexed monthly earnings that includes both covered and non-covered earnings in our records ........................................................................... 0.03 0.05 Table A—Estimated Long-Range OASDI Financial Effects of H.R. 6489, the “Social Security Reform Act of 2016,” Introduced by Chairman Sam Johnson Provision Estimated Change in Long-Range OASDI Actuarial Balance 1 (as a percent of payroll) Estimated Change in Annual Balance for 75th year 2 (as a percent of payroll) 4) After the normal retirement age (NRA) reaches 67 for those attaining age 62 in 2022, increase the NRA by 3 months per year starting for attaining age 62 in 2023 until it reaches 69 for those attaining age 62 in 2030. Increase the age up to which delayed retirement credits may be earned from 70 to 72 on the same schedule. Increase the widow(er) NRA in the same manner. The earliest eligibility age (EEA) for worker and widow(er)’s benefit is unchanged ............................................................................................... 0.84 1.33 5) For single/head-of-household/married-filing-separate taxpayers with modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) below $85,000 and for joint filers with MAGI below $170,000 for the prior tax year, use the chain-weighted version of the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U) to calculate the cost-of-living adjustment (COLA), beginning with the December 2018 COLA. For those beneficiaries whose MAGI is above the $85,000/$170,000 for the prior tax year, provide no COLA. Index the eligibility income threshold amounts to the CPI-U after December 2018 ........................... 1.25 2.31 6) For spouses and children of retired and disabled workers becoming newly eligible beginning in 2023 and phased in for 2023 through 2032, limit their auxiliary benefit to one-half of the PIA for a hypothetical worker with earnings equal to the national average wage index (AWI) each year .................................................................. 0.07 0.11 7) Beginning in January 2019, require full time school enrollment as a condition of eligibility for child benefits at age 15 up to 18 ................ 0.01 0.01 8) Provide a new minimum benefit for workers with more than 10 years of covered earnings above a specified level, phased in for retired and disabled workers becoming newly eligible in 2023 through 2032. Set the minimum PIA at zero percent of AWI for those with 10 or fewer years of work (YOW) to 15 percent of AWI of those with 15 YOWs, increasing linearly so that it reaches 19 percent for 19 YOWs. Then the minimum PIA would jump up to 25 percent of AWI for those with 20 YOWs, increasing linearly so that it equals 35 percent of AWI for those with 35 or more YOWs. A YOW is equal to earnings at or above $10,875 in 2017 (reflecting a full-time worker earning the federal minimum wage), adjusted thereafter for average wage growth. Scale the YOW requirements for disabled workers, based on years of non-disability. Use the AWI for two years prior to the year of initial eligibility in the minimum PIA calculation with COLA increase after the year of initial eligibility ........ -0.23 -0.41 Table A—Estimated Long-Range OASDI Financial Effects of H.R. 6489, the “Social Security Reform Act of 2016,” Introduced by Chairman Sam Johnson Provision Estimated Change in Long-Range OASDI Actuarial Balance 1 (as a percent of payroll) Estimated Change in Annual Balance for 75th year 2 (as a percent of payroll) 9) Beginning in January 2019, eliminate the retirement earnings test for all beneficiaries under normal retirement age, including retired workers, aged spouses, aged widow(er)s, young spouses with a child in care, young surviving spouses with a child in care, and children ...... 0.01 0.12

estimates of the financial effects on Social Security of H.R. 6489, the Social Security Reform Act of 2016

Policy Reports from around the internet provided by edocr. 

Publishing documents on edocr is a proven way to start demand generation for your products and services. Thousands of professionals and businesses publish marketing (brochures, data sheets, press releases, white papers and case studies), sales (slides, price lists and pro-forma agreements), operations (specifications, operating manuals, installation guides), customer service (user manuals) and financial (annual reports and financial statements) documents making it easier for prospects and customers to find content, helping them to make informed decisions. #SEO#leadgen #content #analytics

About edocr

I am an accomplished content marketing professional helping you to build your brand and business. In my current role, I fulfill a multi-faceted solution marketplace including: publishing and sharing your content, embedding a document viewer on your website, improving your content’s search engine optimization, generating leads with gated content and earning money by selling your documents. I gobble up documents, storing them for safekeeping and releasing the text for excellent search engine optimization, lead generation and earned income. 

Publishing documents on edocr.com is a proven way to start demand generation for your products and services. Thousands of professionals and businesses publish marketing, sales, operations, customer service and financial documents making it easier for prospects and customers to find content, helping them to make informed decisions.

Get publishing now!

×

Modal Header

Modal body