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Burden	of	disease	from	the	joint	effects	of	household	and	ambient	Air
pollution	for	2016
v2 May 2018
Summary	of	results
Globally, 7 million deaths were attributable to the joint effects of household (HAP) and ambient air
pollution (AAP) in 2016. About 94% of these deaths occur in low and middleincome (LMI) countries.
The South East Asian and Western Pacific regions bear most of the burden with 2.4 and 2.2 million
deaths, respectively. About 980 000 deaths occur in Africa, 475 000 in the Eastern Mediterranean
region, 348 000 in Europe and 233 000 in the Americas. The remaining deaths occur in highincome
countries of Europe (208 000), Americas (96 000), Western Pacific (83 000), and Eastern
Mediterranean (18 000) (Figure 1).
Regional crude and agestandardized1 death rates are shown in Figures 2 and 3. Both are available at
country level in the WHO Global Health Observatory2. The mortality rate due to the joint effects of
household and ambient air pollution serves as an indicator (SDG indicator 3.9.1) to monitor the
environmental health target of the Sustainable Development Goal 33 (SDG) on health. WHO is the
custodial agency for this and two other air pollution and health related indicators4. Death
breakdown by disease and by sex are shown in Figures 4 and 5.
Country estimates of deaths, disabilityadjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLD) are
provided by disease and sex in the WHO website5. More details on the estimation methods are
available in the document "Burden of disease from the joint effects of Household and Ambient
Air Pollution for 2016 Method description"6.
Linkages to the tracking of the Sustainable Development Goals
The mortality rate attributed to the joint effects of ambient and household air pollution is reported
as SDG 3 indicator 3.9.1 for which WHO is custodial agency. The percentage of the population
primarily relying on clean fuels and technologies (SDG