Fourth of July

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Fourth of July everyone's invited e journa l usa | u.s . depa rt men t of stat e IN THIS ISSUE: ACID OCEANS | SUPER LUNCHES | FINDING REFUGE | SUMMER CAMPS ap imagesEditor EJ|USA IIP/CD/WC U.S. Department of State 2200 C Street, NW Washington, DC 20522-0501 USA email: ejusa-suggestions@state.gov Subscription ISBN 9781625922205 Individual ISBN 9781625922212 U.S. Department of State Bureau of International Information Programs IIP Coordinator Macon Phillips Executive Editor Nicholas S. Namba Director of Written Content Michael Jay Friedman editorial staff Managing Editor Elizabeth Kelleher Editors Kourtni Gonzalez, Sasha Ingber, Lauren Monsen, Jon Tollestrup, Mark Trainer, Andrzej Zwaniecki Designers Julia Maruszewski, Lauren Russell Illustrator Doug Thompson Contributing Writers Karen Calabria, Juan Castillo, Ruxandra Guidi, Phyllis McIntosh, C.A. Solomon, Suhaib Webb, Douglas Wolk, Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield Cover Art Doug Thompson Word Definitions By Permission. From Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary 2014 by Merriam- Webster Inc. (www.learnersdictionary.com). publisher The Bureau of International Information Programs of the U.S. Department of State publishes EJ|USA. Every issue provides insight about U.S. society, values, thought and institutions for international readers. Each EJ|USA is published in print and electronically in English and may also be made available in either or both formats in Arabic, Chinese, French, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish or other languages. Each issue is catalogued by volume and number. The opinions expressed in EJ|USA do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. government. The U.S. Department of State assumes no responsibility for the content or the ongoing accessibility of Internet sites to which issues of EJ|USA may link; responsibility resides solely with the publishers of those sites. EJ|USA articles may be reproduced and translated outside the United States. Photographs and illustrations may be reproduced if they do not carry explicit copyright restrictions. If copyrighted, permission must be sought from the copyright holders credited in each issue. courtesy of pali adventuresSummertime in America means camps, internships and celebrations. u.s . depa rt men t of stat e | vol . 19 | n0 . 1 e j usa .stat e .gov July 2014 FEATURE 12 EVERYONE'S INVITED Barbecue on the Grill: It's as American as Baseball and Apple Pie | Fourth of July, Immigrant Style | New Arrivals Change America Departments 3 SNAPSHOTS OF AMERICA Ignite the Touch Screen? | A White House Fourth | Laser Focus on the Future | Making a Dangerous Holiday Safer EDUCATION 4 Elevating Nutrition 6 Not the Outdoor Type? ARTS 8 Oh, Say Can You Sing? 10 Saving the World's Treasures 22 SCIENCE Acid Oceans 25 LEISURE Diving In, Cleaning Up MARKETPLACE 28 A Million Lunches, No Errors 30 A New Space for Business 32 PEACE & SECURITY Finding Their Way 34 COMMUNITIES Inspired by Ramadan 36 ANNE C. RICHARD: LAST WORD Refuge in Time of Need 37 RESOURCES Policy Points Connecting the Dots david petersonFourth of July everyone's invited e j|usa 1 2 e j|us a Where We Come From I say a few words to a stranger, and she or he asks me: "Where are you from?" I grew up in Poland, and U.S.-born Americans pick up on my foreign accent right away, even if they are not quite sure from which European country I hail. Two of my fellow editors on the EJ|USA team, Lauren Monsen and Kourtni Gonzalez, have a foreign-born parent. Lauren's mother came from Brazil, and Kourtni's father from Panama. While my colleagues report that their parents do not speak English with as strong an accent as I, their parents' non-American origins have at times stirred curiosity. Third-generation Polish-American graphic designer Julia says every time someone mispronounces her last name Maruszewski she is patient, because it only reminds her of her much-valued heritage. When Americans detect differences in each other, they usually volunteer information about their own roots. Immigration is a unifier. We know that every year thousands of immigrants become citizens who will boost our economy and enrich our culture. This year's Independence Day celebration, a theme in this issue, is sure to include recognition of the country's immigrant beginnings. In these pages you will read about newer immigrant communities and how they plan to celebrate the Fourth of July and about refugees resettling here. We include a report on the American taste for barbecue; this form of cooking is so popular that it is viewed as an institution. This issue includes stories about business students learning from other countries' firms, big or small, and American startup companies expanding their plans to include outer space. Here are teenagers learning to eat healthy and scientists and surfers alike saving endangered oceans. You are sure to find something of interest, wherever you are from. Andrzej Zwaniecki americanenglish.state.gov A E Teach We offer resources for students of all levels Learn Improve your English and learn about culture courtesy a. zwaniecki Ignite the Touch Screen? Fireworks are an essential part of the United States' Independence Day celebration. Every year, a third of the country watches one of more than 14,000 fireworks shows. That makes the fireworks industry happy: Its total revenues nearly doubled to $965 million between 1999 and 2012. With a computer chip in almost every shell, sparkling light shows have become more elaborate. Computer- controlled blasts can spell words and form images like peace signs or smiley faces. With apps available for iPhones and Android phones, people who want to avoid the crowds can create virtual shows at home on smartphones or tablets: By touching the screen, they determine where a firework explodes. Laser Focus on the Future Laser light shows may not have the bang, whoosh or crackle of fireworks, but they're gaining in popularity. Proponents say they are better for the environment. They can also be less expensive and safer than fireworks, especially in states with high wildfire risks. For recent Independence Day festivities, communities in California, Texas and other states passed up the old-fashioned fireworks, opting for these tamer strands of light in the sky. A White House Fourth Fourth of July festivities at the White House, although bigger in scale than most Independence Day parties, feature the same sort of hospitality found at more modest celebrations, according to Deesha Dyer, White House deputy social secretary. This year, the Obamas will host a barbecue for military families on the South Lawn, as they've done every year. "There are games for kids it's always fun to watch kids play with the [hula] hoops musical performances and, of course, the celebratory fireworks over the Washington Monument," said Dyer. What's on the menu? Summer foods, including grilled chicken, hot dogs, hamburgers, fruit, potato salad and a crowd favorite, corn on the cob. Making a Dangerous Holiday Safer For many Americans, celebrating Independence Day includes drinking alcohol, which has prompted the nonprofit National Safety Council to name the Fourth of July the most dangerous holiday. There is some good news, however, in the steady 15-year decline in fatalities related to drunk driving on the Fourth. One reason is stricter laws. Each of the 50 states has lowered the legal limit of blood-alcohol concentration allowed for drivers, and many have required past offenders of blood-alcohol limits to install vehicle devices that test a driver's breath before allowing an ignition to start. Such changes often result from advocacy groups, such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), an organization started in 1980 by one mother after her daughter was killed by a drunk driver. MADD estimates that its campaigns against drunken driving have saved 300,000 lives. shutterstockap imagesSnapshots of America e j|us a 3 4 e j|us a Alexxis Lugo, a secondary school student in New York, is thinking about going to college to study nutrition. Her interest may well relate to the new drive she possesses since joining a program called EATWISE (Educated and Aware Teens Who Inspire Smart Eating). As an EATWISE intern, Lugo trains students from other schools to teach their own classmates about nutrition. In the program, managed by Food Bank For New York City, interns like Lugo have advisers and plan and lead classes on their own. The interns check in with adult directors of the program to discuss how lessons are going at their schools, trade tips and brush up on general nutrition knowledge, explained Caitlin Fitzpatrick of the EATWISE program staff. The idea is to improve the physical health of New York teenagers. But for Lugo, it has also brought a boost in self- Elevating Nutrition KOURTNI GONZALEZ Education e j|us a 5 confidence. "Before this, I never thought I'd be able to speak in front of a group of people," she said. "One of my biggest fears is just having a conversation with a person." Her anxiety diminished each time she got up in front of a class to teach. The students have mastered how to cause healthy changes at the grass-roots level. Niree Garcia-Sims, another EATWISE intern, talked to her school's softball team about sports nutrition, which spurred the team to create a diet plan to improve its performance. Lee-Sean Snaggs, an intern from Brooklyn Bridge Academy, applies her knowledge at food banks, soup kitchens, homes for the elderly and centers for disabled children, all of which are places where she sometimes volunteers. "I try to implement things that I've previously learned about nutrition when I teach people," she said. Closer to home, some EATWISE teens have seen changes in their own families. Elizabeth Owens, an EATWISE intern from the Bronx Academy of Health Careers, said her family used to drink sugary beverages such as juice or Kool-Aid* during dinner. She introduced her family to the fruit fizzy, a drink made of fruit juice and soda water. It tastes like soda because it's carbonated and sweet, but it has less sugar and fewer calories, she said. Her family liked it so much her mom decided to bring it to work and share it with co-workers. "Everybody at her job has incorporated that with the meal they eat," said Owens. The directors point to Owens as someone else whom they see as gaining confidence and likely to stick with the program. When Owens started as an intern, she doubted she would be able to teach a health class as effectively as the teacher. "A teacher would have more information and more facts on how to help a child achieve his or her goals," she said. But after Owens taught a few lessons, teachers came to her and told her the kids she taught were changing. They were asking for more healthy diet suggestions. "I had to stick to this program!" Owens said. S Intern: a student or recent graduate who works for a period of time at a job in order to get experience Blog: a Web site on which someone writes about personal opinions, activities, and experiences The EATWISE program attracts a steady flow of participants who remain dedicated to nutrition education long after they've finished their internships. Directors attribute much of that success to social media. Interns regularly update a blog, http://eatwiseteens.org. "The content is developed and prepared by the students, so it's an extension of peer education, online," said Freddy Sanchez, an EATWISE staff member. Besides the blog, EATWISE runs Change One Thing, a social media campaign that encourages teens to make one small healthy choice per day. Visit #ChangeOneThing Getting the Word Out courtesy eatwise*Kool-Aid is a sweet, flavored juice drink. policy points: healthier living connecting the dots: new york Do it Yourself To start your own peer-education group, consider the wisdom of the staff at EATWISE. 1 Seek out students interested in your cause, whether it's healthy eating or stopping bullying. 2 Ask school administrators for permission to teach peers during classes. 3 Share the knowledge with your family. Model a desired behavior at home. 4 Reach more people: Incorporate lessons into volunteering or extracurricular activities. Hold training sessions tailored to sports teams, for instance. 5 Meet with a core group to exchange tips about effective ways to reach peers. 6 e j|us a Education Not the Outdoor Type? PHYLLIS MCINTOSH Learning to drive a race car or jump off a building like a Hollywood stunt performer at summer camp may sound a bit bizarre, but more U.S. teenagers are attending specialty camps that focus on such offbeat experiences. Every summer, about 11 million children in the U.S. attend primarily coed camps that last from three days to eight weeks, according to the American Camp Association (ACA). The majority of campers engage in such traditional activities as arts and crafts, swimming and nature hikes. But due to recent tastes for more exotic or educational experiences, about half of the 2,600 camps affiliated with ACA now offer some type of specialty program. "[Teens] today tend to collect a 'menu' of activities," said ACA chief executive Peg Smith. "They like to try different things." She said some are building their rsums, in hopes of boosting their chances of acceptance by a top-tier college. Such opportunities are not limited to the wealthy. In fact, the majority of campers come from middle- and low-income families. Camps of all sorts offer scholarships or discounts to families that cannot afford the fees. A number of church organizations, charities and foundations support camps specifically for underprivileged teens. At camps with an educational focus, campers can build a robot, design a building, create a computer game, learn to draw or paint, immerse themselves in another language or participate in an archaeological dig. Academic camps target instruction to specific groups, such as gifted and talented youth, kids struggling to improve their grades or those with intellectual challenges. "More than 40 percent of our camps work directly or indirectly with schools because learning is year-round," said Smith. "There's Stunt: ...a difficult and often dangerous action Coed: having or including both men and women Offbeat: different from the ordinary, usual, or expected a great quote that says, 'Fun is the feeling you get when you're learning,' and camp is a perfect model for that." Large camps offer an impressive array of choices for fun and learning. At Pali Adventures, a coed residential camp in the mountains of Southern California, campers aged 9 to 16 can choose among 18 avocations, from action sports such as rope courses, mountain biking or water skiing to learning to be a disc jockey, rock musician, fashion designer or movie-makeup artist. Some ambitious campers value the skill development acquired through specialties like culinary camp or filmmaking, according to Ian Brassett, general manager at Pali Adventures. "But some of our camps are just plain fun." While many specialty camps are offered in traditional sleepover camp settings, such as Pali's, others take place at schools, universities and museums. For more than 30 years, the U.S. Space and Rocket Center, a museum in Huntsville, Alabama, has offered a Space Camp, at which campers train as astronauts in simulated space missions. Camp BizSmart, based at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, offers teenagers the opportunity to work with corporate professionals to solve actual business problems and design new products. The last five years have seen a different trend a growing demand for camps with a more down-to-earth focus, such as cooking, organic gardening and animal care said the ACA's Smith. Even with all the specialty options, old-fashioned cabins, campfires and crafts still have appeal, she said. S Left to right: Campers rehearse lines for acting camp, perform a jump for Hollywood stunt camp, spin a turntable for disc jockey camp. e j|us a 7 Something for Everyone Camp Jam Would-be rock stars learn from professional musicians. Camp Motorsport Drivers get behind the wheels of scaled- down race cars. Circus Camp Campers practice juggling, clowning and swinging on a trapeze. Camp Kids 'N Comedy "We promise not to make you paddle any canoes," advertises this indoor camp, based at a comedy club in New York City. Shark Camp Teens certified in scuba diving travel to Fiji to dive with sharks. Tall Ship Camp At sea, campers learn to sail and perform shipboard duties, from captain to cook. all photos courtesy of pali adventuresconnecting the dots: huntsville, alabama ; palo alto, california ; new york Singing at rock star camp 8 e j|us a Arts Oh, Say Can You Sing? DOUGLAS WOLK Although "The Star-Spangled Banner" is performed before every baseball game and at many other public events, it's notoriously hard to sing. But in its history, the song has allowed the performers who can sing it to create memorable and unique interpretations of the United States' most prominent musical symbol. When "The Star-Spangled Banner" became the national anthem in 1931, the New York Herald Tribune famously described it as "words that nobody can remember to a tune nobody can sing." Its melody is adapted from an 18th-century drinking song, and its lyrics from a poem that Francis Scott Key wrote 200 years ago (describing a battle in the War of 1812). And it's fiendishly hard to hit all the notes the highest is an octave and a half above the lowest. A 2004 poll found that only 39 percent of Americans could correctly complete the song's third line. Franklin Bruno, songwriter and author of a forthcoming history of songwriting, The Inside of the Tune, points out that the anthem anticipated the country's musical future in the way the rhythm and rhyme scheme of each verse's third couplet ("And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air ") change the song's tone by softening the martial quality of the other lines. "It's fitting that our national anthem wouldn't be in quite the strict English ballad form," Bruno said. The national anthem's symbolic weight also means that when it is performed in anything but a straightforward way, listeners ascribe meaning to the deviation. On July 4, 1941, against the backdrop of World War II, composer Igor Stravinsky premiered an orchestral arrangement of the anthem that incorporated a few unusual harmonies. That performance led to a brief skirmish between Stravinsky and Boston police, who thought he'd violated a state law against "tampering" with the national anthem. Jos Feliciano sings the national anthem during the National League baseball championship series in 2012. e j|us a 9 Fiendish: extremely bad, unpleasant or difficult Forthcoming: appearing, happening or arriving soon connecting the dots: boston ; new york During the 1968 Major League Baseball World Series, Puerto Rican singer Jos Feliciano performed "The Star-Spangled Banner" in the style of a contemporary folk-pop song, accompanied by acoustic guitar. It caused a flurry of controversy: "Some people wanted me deported," he later said, "as if you can be deported to Puerto Rico." (Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States.) But Feliciano's version became a minor hit single, and he said that by the time he reprised his version at a 2012 championship baseball game, it was generally understood by the audience as "an anthem of gratitude to a country that had given me a chance." Marvin Gaye's slow, spectral, gospel-tinged rendition performed at the 1983 National Basketball Association All-Star game, accompanied by a drum machine, made the song sound shockingly modern. Former Los Angeles Lakers star Earvin "Magic" Johnson said Gaye's performance gave him a feeling of "pride at being an American ... you almost cried, it was so devastating." While singing "The Star-Spangled Banner" is most often a statement of national pride, it can also be a vehicle for political protest. A 2006 Spanish- language recording of the song (as "Nuestro Himno") criticized American immigration policy. Jimi Hendrix famously performed his rendition of the anthem at the 1969 Woodstock music festival as a protest against the Vietnam War. Complete with "bombing" sound effects, it is the best-known radical reworking of the anthem. "It's not unorthodox," Hendrix told television interviewer Dick Cavett in September 1969 about his interpretation of the anthem. "I thought it was beautiful." At the time of the 1991 Super Bowl, when Whitney Houston sang "The Star-Spangled Banner" with a flourish on the high note of "land of the free" that propelled it even higher America was in the middle of the Gulf War, and she dedicated her performance to the country's military. It became a hit when it was released as a single a few weeks later. It was even more successful when it was re-released a decade later, with proceeds to benefit New York firefighters and police after the September 11, 2001, attacks. Beyonc Knowles' recent performances of the anthem (at President Obama's 2013 inauguration, among other venues) have loosely followed Houston's template, including its extra-high note. That the anthem is hard to sing may be apt; Americans enjoy freedoms that have not come easily. Over time, "The Star-Spangled Banner" has become a song that invites expressions of individuality and of unity. There's something fitting about that, too. S Marvin Gaye Watch! See Whitney Houston perform "The Star-Spangled Banner." Beyonc Jimi Hendrix Whitney Houston all photos ap images; flag thinkstock 10 e j|us a Arts Saving the World's Treasures LAUREN MONSEN Tanzania Off the coast of Tanzania are the islands of Songo Mnara and Kilwa Kisiwani, which shelter important cultural treasures such as Gereza Fort. The islands boast architectural ruins that date back more than 800 years. Remains of palaces, mosques, houses and other structures testify to a sophisticated mercantile culture. state dept. e j|us a 11 Explore! Learn about the U.S. Ambassadors Fund in the book Priceless. http://goo.gl/Fvqy6l The Ismamut Ata in Turkmenistan will be featured in next month's issue of EJ|USA. Since its inception 13 years ago, the U.S. Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation has contributed millions of dollars to preserve cultural sites and objects, and traditional forms of expression, worldwide. These projects include the restoration of buildings, conservation of manuscripts, protection of archaeological sites and documentation of vanishing crafts. The preserved sites and objects are all testaments to the experiences of humanity. S courtesy of u.s. embassy ashgabat 12 e j|us a F E AT U R E Everyone's invited Fourth of July: ap imagese j|us a 13 F O U R T H O F J U LY 14 e j|us a Barbecue on the Grill It's as American as Baseball and Apple Pie JUAN CASTILLO On July 4, Arnie Segovia will be right where he wants to be and where he always is on this patriotic holiday: outdoors, in front of a smoky-hot fire, grilling meat. Ribs, T-bone steaks, chicken and beef brisket are some of his favorite cuts for the grill. A 52-year-old real estate agent in the small South Texas town of Weslaco, Segovia used to grill every day of the week. Now he has cut back a bit, but most weekends, driving and pull- ing a trailer carrying grills, Segovia and his wife, Terry, travel across the vast state to compete in high-stakes barbecue competitions. The top prizes can reach $10,000 or more. "I'm somewhat of a barbecue nut," Segovia said with a laugh. He has plenty of company. Outdoor grilling and barbecue are about as American as baseball and apple pie, integral to a celebration, get-together or holiday. But for him, no special occasion is needed. "Barbecue just brings people together," Segovia said. "Something about cooking meat and just hanging out with friends and family. It's a pretty special, cultural thing." In Texas, barbecuing is a year-round pastime, but no holiday is more popular for grilling in the U.S. than the Fourth of July, ac- e j|us a 15 cording to a survey by the Hearth, Patio & Barbecue Association, a trade group. Barbecue lovers say their fascination is not just with the food. "It's more of an event. They can get outside, entertain, be with family and friends and unplug for just a little while," said Sue Crosby, a spokes- woman for the trade group. She is quick to point out that 80 percent of all households in the U.S. own at least one grill or smoker. Barbecuing or "grilling out" varies across the U.S., depending on the meats or vegetables, wood or charcoal, and sauces. The city of Memphis, Tennessee, the Carolinas and certain towns in other Southern states brag about their barbecue. But Texas brings a spe- cial swagger to the table. There, beef is king and the natives joke that barbecue is the state food. "In this Texan's opinion, Texas has the best barbecue in the country," joked Aaron Franklin, the 36-year-old owner of Franklin Barbecue, a laid-back barbecue restaurant in Austin, Texas, that is popular with diners, many of whom are themselves expert grillers. People line up before dawn to be among the first to get inside when the doors open at 11 in the morning. On a recent day, Kathy Stott, an ardent griller from Las Cruces, New Mexico, was the first in line, joined by a few relatives in town for a family reunion. About 250 people waited patiently behind Stott, aaron franklin 16 e j|us a F O U R T H O F J U LY Aaron Franklin, owner of Franklin Barbecue, stands ready to grill. connecting the dots: austin, texas ; weslaco, texas ; las cruces, new mexico ; memphis, tennessee ; los angeles who relished the chance to taste Franklin's brisket because, she said, it is prepared with a barbecue rub, not a sauce. That's the way Stott barbecues her brisket at home. "My husband and kids got me a full-size smoker and barbecue," Stott said. "Because that's how important barbecue is." Texas' history with barbecue goes back thousands of years to when the Caddo Indians cooked game over wood fires. Texas' winning bar- becue formula is still uncomplicated, according to Franklin. "It's such a primal way to cook," he said. "The mindset in Texas is just meat and fire, and cook till it's ready." Fueled by Franklin's appearances on national TV cooking shows and commercials, the buzz about Franklin Barbecue has spread across the country and beyond. While waiting in the line that routinely snakes around the block for his barbecue, neighbors from Thailand recently bumped into each other, much to their surprise. "That goes back to how it's always been," said Franklin. "Barbecue really does bring people together." S e j|us a 17 Will Vegetables Take Over the Grill? Grilled vegetables may be hard to find in Texas, but beyond the meat- loving South, Americans also enjoy produce, a healthier option than meat, according to experts. Enter "vegetarian barbecue America" into Google and close to 51 million links appear on subjects ranging from "how to" recipes to "a vegetarian's guide to surviving barbecue season." Americans traditionally have grilled corn and potatoes, but recently more vegetables (and sometimes even fruits) have made their way onto the grill: peppers, eggplant, onion and zucchini squash. Carol Adams, who co-authored a cookbook on vegetarian barbecue, said: "There isn't a thing in the world you couldn't veganize." And so Fourth of July menus will also include tofu hamburgers, Buffalo "chicken" wings made of cauliflower and grilled peaches for dessert. Barbecue Diplomacy Last November, American chef Ben Ford, owner of Ford's Filling Station in Los Angeles, traveled to Hong Kong to participate in the State Department's culinary diplomacy program. His mission? To bring American barbecue to the people of Hong Kong. He visited markets, which he found to be "incredible" for their varied offerings. He cooked at local restaurants, including a well-known Cantonese Michelin- starred establishment. And he hosted a barbecue for the Asia Society, a nonprofit that educates the world about Asia. At each stop, he talked about American cuisine. "It's not just hamburgers and hot dogs," said Ford, who is also a master butcher. His audiences, while familiar with American food, appreciated some of the unique aspects of a cookout, or barbecue. "The wood taste on food was probably the biggest difference," he said, describing the result of cooking over wood to impart a smoky flavor to the meat. Ford, who happens to be the son of film star Harrison Ford, was impressed by Hong Kong's diverse cuisine and picked up a few indigenous cooking techniques. "They've been exposed to so many different things," he said. "There are so many different currents flowing through that area. You can literally get anything you want." Ford said the trip was a success, and he enjoyed the collaboration. "I've never really been able to do anything for my country before, and this was a nice way to be able to do that," he said. Kourtni Gonzalez Ben Ford discusses American cuisine with a reporter in Hong Kong. brooks praaron franklinaaron franklin 18 e j|us a F O U R T H O F J U LY M onterey Park sits only 15 kilome- ters east of sunny downtown Los Angeles, but it has a suburban feel that's different from the hus- tle and bustle of the city. Noodle restaurants and tea shops, many with signs written in Manda- rin, line the streets of Monterey Park. This small city has the larg- est concentration of Chinese-American residents in the country. But like much of the rest of Southern California, Monterey Park is anything but homogeneous. It has a growing number of residents who are Vietnamese Americans and has become home to many other immigrant groups. This is especially evident at the city's Brugge- meyer Library, which has hosted literacy classes for almost 2,000 immigrant adults who went on to become citizens. One of these new citizens is Irina Selkova, from Russia, who re- cently took a class at the library and admits that before then she knew little about the significance of the Fourth of July holiday be- yond the fact that Americans like to celebrate it outdoors, with lots of food, flags and fireworks. "I knew it was a big holiday since before coming here," said Sel- kova. "But what really surprises me is the degree to which people get involved in the celebrations: Nobody is pushing them to go out and be patriotic." Selkova is one of the dozens of newly naturalized U.S. citizens whom the City of Monterey Park will invite to its Fourth of July celebration this year. For more than two decades, the city council Fourth of July, Immigrant Style RUXANDRA GUIDI Customers look at fireworks for their Fourth of July celebration. ap images e j|us a 19 has used the federal holiday as an opportunity to introduce its new citizens to the rest of the community and recognize them with a certifi- cate that welcomes them to town. "This is unique to our city I'd never heard of another place doing it," said Robert Aguirre, who plans the event, which welcomes an average of 100 new citizens each year. "Every year we com- memorate the Japanese Cherry Blossom Festival, Chinese New Year and Cinco de Mayo. But our Fourth of July event brings everyone together and invites even more diversity into town." It invites cultural cross-pollination too like families' picnic spreads that include hamburg- ers, hot dogs, Mexican carne asada and Chinese chicken with rice noodles. Eduardo Sevilla has been living in Monterey Park since 1986, when he moved here from his native Honduras, and has been celebrating the Fourth of July for almost as long as he's been in his adopted country. "Tell me about a Latino immigrant, like my- self, who doesn't celebrate Fourth of July," he said. "It's impossible!" Family and community are so important to immigrants from throughout Latin America, he said. "And we love to party." Sevilla's wife, Gabriela, of Mexican heritage, cooks traditional Mexican foods for the big holi- day, including tacos, carne asada and pozole, a traditional stew with corn and many different kinds of meat. Since he always gets July Fourth off from work, Sevilla usually spends it outside, help- ing to cook, listening to music and welcoming friends especially those who are recent ar- rivals from Honduras. But this year it will be different. Sevilla will celebrate a personal mile- stone: becoming a U.S. citizen after almost 30 years in the country. Latino immigrants throughout Los Angeles typically join in on the Fourth of July festivi- ties. One of the best-attended fireworks dis- plays takes place near downtown Los Angeles, in the historically Mexican neighborhood of Boyle Heights. "We like to go out with a bang every year," said Diana del Pozo Mora, who was born to Mex- ican parents and raised in Boyle Heights. "We get some of the wildest fireworks displays around." From afternoon until well past sundown, families occupy every patch of grass on Hollen- beck Park for grilling, playing games and listen- ing to live mariachi music and DJs playing salsa. "Our Fourth of July celebration just keeps getting bigger," said del Pozo Mora, who esti- mates that around 10,000 people will come this year. "The immigrant families in Boyle Heights have been craving a place where they can gather and celebrate their new roots in Los Angeles. There was a need, and they've found a way." S Holiday Mashups No matter if you live by the Gregorian calendar, the Hebrew or Islamic, in a nation such as the U.S., populated by people of different races, cultures and religions, some holidays are bound to overlap. This year, the Fourth of July happens during Ramadan, when Muslims fast from sunrise until sunset as one pillar of Islam. "I personally cut out all social events to fully focus on the month," said weight-loss consultant Fenda Tambajang of New York. Rabia Chaudry, an attorney in Maryland, will observe the day differently. "I plan on spending the Fourth of July resting and then preparing for a barbecue iftar with family which will probably include dates, samosas, hot dogs, tandoori chicken, burgers, different salads and fresh fruit. After that we'll go see the fireworks." Some holidays might be easier to blend than others. A dash of cultural creativity was used for "Thanksgivukkah" in November 2013, since Thanksgiving, when Americans feast in appreciation for what they have, fell on one of the eight days of Hanukkah, a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem. Leading up to the day, Google reported that searches for "Thanksgivukkah" spiked. People embraced the similarities on that rare Thursday which won't occur again for some 70,000 years such as the tradition of serving potatoes. Some people also created hybrid dishes, such as adding Jewish-style rye to Thanksgiving's beloved pumpkin pie. Another fusion of tradition: People lit candles on the menorah and then watched American football, as is often the custom after a big Thanksgiving meal. In 2010, the Lunar New Year celebrated in China and other East Asian countries coincided with Valentine's Day, when people are encouraged to express their love for family, friends and partners. "Chinese New Year is the most important holiday of the year where families come together," said Chinese-American Susan Yin. If the overlap happens again, she says she'd bring her boyfriend to the celebration. "I think it's perfectly fine to bring your significant other to dinner with family, and there may be a toast for lovers present. In that sense, there is some melding of the two holidays." Both holidays also embrace the color red, which symbolizes prosperity in Chinese culture and love in American culture. In March of this year, the joyful celebration of St. Patrick's Day by Irish Americans came on the heels of Purim, a carnival-like celebration commemorating the rescue of the Jewish people from extermination in ancient times. An unusual festivity took place at a Washington bar, The Star and The Shamrock. Patrons dressed up in costumes, ate shepherd's pie with matzo ball soup, watched Irish step dancers and then listened to klezmer, Jewish music typically played at weddings. "Two ancient cultures come together into one modern-day neighborhood melting pot," said owner Jay Feldman. "It's all in the name of good fun." Sasha Ingber connecting the dots: monterey park, california connecting the dots: washington New Arrivals Change America 20 e j|us a F O U R T H O F J U LY In about 20 years, immigration will be a bigger contributor to population growth than natural increase (births minus deaths), according to census projections. Historically, immigrants' children have contributed to natural increase, and recent immigrants from Latin America and Asia, in addition to their children, have increased ethnic/ racial diversity in the country. High numbers of naturalized citizens reflect five decades of immigration policies based on family unification, labor needs, humanitarian goals and a desire to increase diversity. Net immigration averaged about 1 million annually over 19802010, and legal immigrants include many longtime residents or immediate relatives of naturalized citizens. Upon naturalization, many new citizens sponsor close family members for immigrant visas, though they may wait months or years to reunify their families while they become established in communities. Continued influx of immigrants to the U.S. signals both the attractiveness of the economy and democracy and the capacity to incorporate new citizens into society. The high share of naturalized Americans in the foreign-born population reflects a commitment by immigrants to joining American society. For both naturalized and birthright citizens, education and the public discourse promote political engagement. Many new Americans are voting, running for office or taking part in other political activities. By naturalizing, these individuals have demonstrated interest in democratic ideals. Once they are citizens, they are likely to be active participants in the U.S. political process. S Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield, research professor, University of Maryland, College Park Naturalized Americans on the fourth of july, many immigrants who are legal residents become u.s. citizens at naturalization ceremonies held around the country by u.s. citizenship and immigration services. citizenship confers a number of rights and benefits, such as the right to vote and eligibility for federal employment. policy points: an american mindset connecting the dots: college park, maryland thinkstocke j|us a 21 of new workers will be immigrants or their children during the next 20 years. source: 2013 center for american progress study a majority of immigrants will own their homes. source: 2011 center for american progress report immigrants annually have been granted permanent residency or "green cards" in the U.S. since 2005. That is double the number during the 1970s and 1980s. source: 2012 department of homeland security 38% by 2030 1 million 22 e j|us a Acid Oceans SASHA INGBER Before oysters grow in clusters on the muddy banks, before the saltwater of the bay soaks into their coarse shells, tiny brown larvae float in the tanks at Taylor Shellfish Farms in Washington state. Eventually, they will become the tasty morsels that West Coast restaurants and grocery stores offer. But in 2007, the floating freckles drifted to the bottom of the tanks. The hatchery was left with motionless brown piles. "It was a gradual thing where death became more the normal than survival," said manager Bill Dewey, himself a shellfish farmer who works the tides. For the next two years, Taylor's production was off by 75 percent, and more than 500 employees wondered day after day if they would lose their jobs. Around the same time, a large hatchery in Oregon, Whiskey Creek, experienced such devastating loss that its customers were reaching into their pockets to keep the operation in business. "The oyster industry was in a world of hurt," said Dewey. There was talk of bacteria in seawater but for two years, few people knew what was really happening. Truth on the Tides As crop farmers depend on the rain, shellfish farmers depend on the oceans. These roiling surfaces cover 71 percent of the Earth, regulating our climate and weather and cycling nutrients. But in the last decade, scientists claim that oceans have absorbed about a third of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by humans roughly 22 million tons every day. This greenhouse gas, which humans generate through electricity production, land development and transportation, dissolves in the water. But it doesn't vanish. It A view of the shallow reefs of Henderson Island, observed during a 2012 National Geographic Pristine Seas expedition to the Pitcairn Islands. Science e j|us a 23 turns into carbonic acid, which alters the ancient chemistry of the Earth's oceans. Though acidification isn't new, scientists claim that it's happening at a rate 10 times faster than it did 65 million years ago. Since the Industrial Revolution in the 1800s, oceans have become 30 percent more acidic. And the effects of CO2 are just beginning to be felt. In the American West, it has led to devastating losses at major hatcheries such as Taylor Shellfish Farms, where it has inhibited oyster-shell growth as tanks draw in acidic water from Dabob Bay. "Whenever CO2 levels change rapidly in the geologic history of our planet, there have been major extinction events. We are currently in the middle of a major extinction event," said George Waldbusser of Oregon State University, who is assessing the potential impact of ocean acidification and identifying hot spots. He claims that beyond the Pacific Northwest coast, places like the Mississippi River Delta, the Gulf of Maine and Chesapeake Bay are all at risk of acidification. Acidic seawater could affect other species low on the food chain, such as shrimp, sea urchins and corals, causing their shells and skeletons to corrode. Though they make up just a kaleidoscopic 1 percent of the ocean floor, coral reefs support a fourth of all marine life by serving as spawning and feeding grounds. They also boost tourism about $364 million each year in Hawaii alone and act as natural coastal barriers during storms. Scientists have found that the Coral Triangle, which includes the waters of Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, may be especially vulnerable to acidification. They predict that a third of 3/4 of the planet is ocean enric sala/national geographic"Our Ocean" Conference The State Department will bring participants from more than 80 countries to Washington on June 1617. One goal is to spread awareness about ocean acidification, highlighting affected industries and new tools to monitor this debilitating trend. The conference will also focus on marine pollution and sustainable fisheries and other issues affecting the world's oceans. A healthier ocean means a healthier planet. A deckhand with Taylor Shellfish Farms reaches for a container as he transplants Totten Virginica oysters. Science 24 e j|us a the world's coral may vanish in the next 30 years if human threats aren't reduced. "Scientists are concerned that the combined stresses from ocean acidification and global warming will cause the extinction of corals by the end of the century," said senior scientist Lisa Suatoni of the Natural Resources Defense Council. "We need to identify the most vulnerable countries and engage with them now." In the U.S., federal agencies are addressing the changing chemistry of our oceans and its impact on marine life, human life and economies. The Department of State is contributing $1 million to the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network in Monaco, where scientists from around the world are monitoring the "vital signs" of our oceans. By 2020, the network aims to protect 20 percent of the world's coral reefs, grass beds, mangroves and salt marshes. It also wants to develop monitoring equipment and enlist more countries in these efforts. The Caribbean and Pacific islands are already getting involved. "Each country wants to exercise its own sovereignty. But that's not the way the ocean works, and that's not the way migratory species behave," said Secretary of State John Kerry at the Economist World Ocean Summit on February 25. "We're all connected to these, and we have to find a global structure." Floating Solutions In an industry typically driven by competition, oyster farmers have been working together for survival. Today, Taylor Shellfish Farms monitors the chemistry of its water and uses an automated buffering system to protect its oyster larvae. Whiskey Creek relies on similar mechanisms. The breeding season has switched from summer, when winds draw in older, more acidic ocean water, to winter. Things seem to be stabilizing at least in these watery nooks. But as oceans continue to absorb CO2, diluting the effects of climate change, the long-term health of the planet remains uncertain. The oceans' capacity to act as a greenhouse gas storehouse could diminish over time, leaving more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. If that happens, the droughts, floods, erosion and other impacts associated with climate change would intensify. To curb his own carbon footprint, Dewey now leads an eco- friendly lifestyle. He takes short showers. He uses long-lasting light bulbs. He recently bought a hybrid vehicle. In fact, Taylor's parking lot is filled with hybrid cars and boasts one of the first nongovernmental charging stations for electric cars in Washington. Ocean acidification is personal to Dewey: all of those luminous summers spent on a beach on Cape Cod in Massachusetts as a child, all of those hours spent studying marine biology as a student. He even got married on his clam farm, laying down predator nets as the wedding aisle. Guests threw clam seeds instead of flowers as he and his wife walked toward the horizon. He is part of a burgeoning community of people urging others to be aware of the changing composition of our oceans. "When I speak to people I say, 'I've been a shellfish farmer for 30 years. Here's what ocean acidification is doing to my baby oysters,'" said Dewey. S Larvae: a very young form of an insect that looks like a worm Corrode: to gradually destroy or weaken (something) ap imagesconnecting the dots: cape cod, massachusetts policy points: working together for oceans e j|us a 25 Leisure Diving In, Cleaning Up C.A . SOLOMON A member of Project AWARE picks up trash off Roatn, Honduras. anja garrido barnet/project aware 26 e j|us a Born in Northern California, Doug Woodring has always loved the water. He swam in college at the University of California- Berkeley, which has a top swim team, and later took up ocean swimming and outrigger paddling. Like many other young Americans today, Woodring's passion for adventure sports didn't stop when he came ashore but spurred his career choices. Concerned about pollution in the oceans, Woodring co- founded a science expedition in 2009 to the North Pacific Gyre, a circular system of ocean currents often called the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch." After sampling fish at extreme depths, the explorers found that, even there, "10 percent of small fish had plastics in their stomachs," Woodring said. Plastic is a huge problem in the ocean. "The ocean for a long time forever, really was treated as a dump," said Woodring, who was recognized for his ocean-conservation efforts by being named a U.N. climate hero. "The idea was that these things would go away. But these things don't go away. The ocean is downstream for everything." What's more, about 90 percent of the world's plastic that is not recycled can stay in the environment for hundreds of years, harming or killing wildlife. Woodring went on to found the Ocean Recovery Alliance in 2010, based in the U.S. and Hong Kong. The alliance's goal is to get people who use the ocean for pleasure or for work to come to its defense. The alliance has kicked off an effort tied to World Oceans Day (June 8). Called Oceanic Big 5, the event brings together participants in the five biggest open-water sports surfing, sailing, swimming, paddling and diving as they head out in groups to clean up an area they use. With funding from the World Bank, Woodring hopes soon to unveil Global Alert, mapping software that will allow a beachcomber or a fisherman to map and report trash found along waterways or shorelines. Woodring is not alone in finding a higher, environmental aim while enjoying his pastime. The Surfrider Foundation was born in 1984 after three California surfers rallied to save their local 7 million tons of plastic end up in the world's oceans each year. source: united nations Ocean Ambassador Jen Schumacher doing what she loves most an open-water swim. barbara schumacherLeisure e j|us a 27 Malibu surf break from development. The foundation has ballooned to more than 100 chapters around the U.S. and the world. But the group's mandate remains the same, according to chief executive Jim Moriarty, who says members work to keep access to healthy coastlines. Surfers in t

Celebrations of the Fourth of July became more common as the years went on and in 1870, almost a hundred years after the Declaration was written, Congress first declared July 4 to be a national holiday as part of a bill to officially recognize several holidays, including Christmas. Further legislation about national holidays, including July 4, was passed in 1939 and 1941.

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