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The role of electrical transformers is to switch voltage from one value to another; normally from higher to lower voltage or vice versa. They consist of
two sets of coils or windings that are connected to a ferromagnetic core. There are two types of coilsâ€”the primary and secondary conductors.
A changing current in the primary conductor produces alternating magnetic fields in the core, which in turn multiples the fields and couples most of the
flux with the secondary conductor. This incites the alternating voltage or EMF in each of the secondary conductor.
The cores can be customized as toroidal or laminated. The toroidal has several advantages such as producing low magnetic leakage, close flux path,
low noise and smaller core size, lighter and more efficient. They have copper wires wrapped around a cylindrical core preventing leakage of magnetic
flux. The magnetic flux is not very influential on other components.
On the other hand, the laminated core is composed of sheets of magnetic material that is insulated from one another with a non-conducting material
such as varnish, producing a core that decreases electrical losses.
Electrical transformers can be configured in two ways. You can choose single-phase or three-phase. In switching the voltage level, the principle of
magnetic induction between coils is to transfer voltage between coils from the electricity that flows through them. The transformers are passive devices
that initiates the transformation of alternating current or AC electrical energy from one circuit into another through electromagnetic induction.
Many homes and businesses have transformers to transfer electricity from power plants. The voltage of the transformers at the power plants is
normally high. As they reached the substation, the voltage is lowered. When they reached smaller transformer, the voltage is lowered again. The
adjustment in voltage is a continuous process, which only stops when the power reaches the useable level.