UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT
FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY
FOOD AND NUTRITION
FOOD AND NUTRITION
All living organisms require food for survival, growth, and reproduction.
Most broadly, the term food can be taken to include any kind of nutrient
needed by animals, plants, and simpler forms of life, on down to
bacteria. This would include, for example, the inorganic substances that
plants draw from air and water. The processes that circulate these basic
nutrients in the environment are called nutrient cycles, and the processes
by which organisms make use of nutrients are collectively known as
In terms of the energy needs of humans and other animals, food consists
of carbohydrate, fat, and protein, along with vitamins and minerals.
Humans may consume a wide range of different food substances, as
long as they meet nutrition requirements. Otherwise nutritional-
deficiency diseases will develop.
ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES
Nutrition is the science that interprets the relationship of food to the
functioning of the living organism. It is concerned with the intake of
food, digestive processes, the liberation of energy, and the elimination
of wastes, as well as with all the syntheses that are essential for
maintenance, growth, and reproduction. These fundamental activities are
characteristic of all living organisms – from the simplest to the most
complex plants and animals. Nutrients are substances, either naturally
occurring or synthesized, that are necessary for maintenance of the
normal function of organisms. These include carbohydrates, lipids,
proteins, vitamins and minerals, water, and some unknown substances.
The nutritionist, a scientist working in the field of nutrition, differs from
the dietitian, who translates the science of nutrition into the skill of
furnishing optimal nourishment to people. Dietetics is a profession
concerned with the science and art of human nutrition c