The phrase "deep ecology" was coined by the
Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess in 1972 in
his paper "The Shallow and the Deep, Long-
Range Ecology Movement."
The term was intended to call for a fundamental
rethinking of environmental thought that
would go far beyond the belief that humans
are the central and most significant entities in
the universe, or the assessment of reality
through an exclusively human perspective.
The philosophy emphasizes the
interdependent value of human and non-
human life as well as the importance of the
ecosystem and natural processes.
It provides a foundation for the environmental
and green movements and has led to a system
of environmental ethics.
Deep ecology refers to a platform, first
formulated as eight principles by Arne Naess
and George Sessions in 1984. Those principles
are as follows:
The well-being and flourishing of human and
non-human life on Earth have value in
themselves (synonyms: intrinsic value,
inherent value). These values are independent
of the usefulness of the non-human world for
Richness and diversity of life forms contribute to
the realization of these values and are also
values in themselves.
Humans have no right to reduce this richness
and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
The flourishing of human life and cultures is
compatible with a substantial decrease of the
population. The flourishing of non-human life
requires such a decrease.
Present human interference with the non-
human world is excessive, and the situation is
Policies must therefore be changed. These
policies affect basic economic, technological,
and ideological structures. The resulting state
of affairs will be deeply different from the
The ideological change is mainly that of
appreciating life quality (dwelling in situations
of inherent value) rather than adhering to an