Volume 4 Issue 5
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 5 Issue 3, March-April 2021 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD38715 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 3 | March-April 2021 Page 184 Constraint to Effective use of ICT on Islamic Education: A Critical Analysis of Public and Private Secondary School Dr. Mustapha Garba Muhammad1, Adam Mustapha Garba2, Garba Sufiyanu Mustapha3 1Senior Lecturer, 2,3Student, 1Department of Islamic Studies, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Nigeria 2Department of Science and Technology Education, University of Jos, Nigeria 3Department of Computer Science, University of Jos, Nigeria ABSTRACT This research focused and analyze some problems that militate the effective use of ICT on Islamic education in secondary schools. These problems include: Lack of technical knowhow by the teachers, Interest of parental influence, Lack of maintenance, Lack of political will to support ICT programme, Inadequate provision of modern ICT facilities, Irregular power supply and Lack of Arabic language to use Islamic gadget. Survey research design is adopted in the study and validated self-structure questionnaire is raise and use to obtain data about 111 questionnaires were randomly distributed to both public and private secondary school teachers in Jos, Plateau state. The quantitative data returned were evaluated using descriptive statistics and further analyzed using Independent sample Mann-Whitney U test in (SPSS version 25). The results of the study reveal that there is an Insignificant difference between public and private secondary school to the challenges faces to effective use of ICT with Z=-.508 at P<.05 level of significance, where we retain the null hypothesis of the statistical test. It is recommended that ICT programme should be implemented and make it compulsory to each and every school by the government, continues training of ICT skill to teachers and buying of modern facilities should be adhere, and involvement of parent and political leaders should be encourage, equally they should motivate and sponsored the ICT resources and programme respectively to their various home and zones. KEYWORDS: Constraint, Effective, Use, ICT and Islamic Education How to cite this paper: Dr. Mustapha Garba Muhammad | Adam Mustapha Garba | Garba Sufiyanu Mustapha "Constraint to Effective use of ICT on Islamic Education: A Critical Analysis of Public and Private Secondary School" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-5 | Issue-3, April 2021, pp.184- 190, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd38715.pdf Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) INTRODUCTION The use of ICT in our educational institutions in Nigeria is mostly at its infancy stage. Although efforts have been made, especially in the tertiary education for the provision of ICT facilities. Interventions received from government and non- governmental organizations such as National Communication Commission (NCC) and tertiary education trust fund (TETFUND) are quite laudable. They have donated PCs, Laptops, connectivity equipment’s and payment of bandwidth in universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Most tertiary institutions have developed educational portals through which payment, course registration, departmental registration, aptitude test, examinations and other academic activities are carried out. Higgins (2002) noted that there is evidence from research that ICT can help pupils to learn and teachers to teach more effectively. The success story of ICT usage in our primary and secondary schools is quite limited. Higgins added that in Europe, especially UK government has invested heavenly in ICT for use by teachers and pupils in schools. In Nigeria only school in the urban centres mostly have received some of those modern facilities. The use of ICT in Islamic education has faced a lot of challenges ranging from procedural, process, organizational and physical challenges. It is fact, a very complex process involving not just technology but also curriculum and pedagogy, institutional readiness, teacher competencies and longtime financing, as noted by Tinio(2002). Information and communication technology in primary and (Islamic school) system has been one of the welcoming innovation by the Government which is meant to improve pupils performance in schools, but very little has been done to investigate what kind of teachers are involved and how they perceived to use ICT resources in the classrooms. Ofem Ubi A. and Monica, (2016), Conceptual Framework Technology had changed the way people lived, worked and learned. The use of technology in education is one of the main challenges for education policy makers. Traditional methods of teaching and learning are no longer able to meet the needs and achievement of educational goals. New technologies provide a lot of opportunities and means for teaching and learning methods, in other to meet educational goals. The influence that ICT can have on teaching and learning methods depends on the knowledge, interest, pedagogical skills and how to implement it in the (subjects) and courses. IJTSRD38715 International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD38715 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 3 | March-April 2021 Page 185 The effect of ICT varies across disciplines regardless of the discipline; however, the advantage is that students and teachers are not limited by time and place. Fattahian H. (2004). Some Components of ICT to be Used in Islamic Education The following are some ICT components used in Islamic education which are categorized as: Desktop Computers, Interactive whiteboard (IWB), Islamic software’s, Laptops, Large Printers, Photocopiers, Audio/video CDs/DVDs, Radio, Television, Servers for international networks, Projectors, Pen Drive, WI-FI, flat forms, Islamic charts, Digital cameras, Tablets, Ipads/Ipods, Scanners, Video Games, Islamic devices etc. Challenges in Using ICT in Islamic Education Change is believed to be constant and inevitable in human endeavors. The shift from traditional method of teaching to ICT/ Multimedia digitalization of teaching and learning are bound to have huge challenges. Resnick (2005) was right when he said that in most places where new technologies are being used in education today, the technologies are used simply to reinforce outmoded approaches to learning. Some of the challenges faced in the usages of ICT in Islamic education includes: Lack of technical knowhow by the teachers. Lack of maintenance. Lack of political will to support ICT programme. Inadequate provision of modern ICT facilities. Irregular power supply. Interest of parental influence. Lack of Arabic language to use Islamic gadgets. Solutions for the Challenges of Using ICT in Islamic Education A. Lack of technical knowhow by the teachers: Under this heading teachers lack training and the few available are lost through brain to other competing and more highly paid sectors of economy or even across the shores of the state. In this regard, Government should enforce ICT skills as compulsory to school in other to force teachers of Islamic studies to adopt ICT skills, and also, enough ICT infrastructures should be provided to enhance effective teaching of Islamic studies, while using ICT apparatus. B. Lack of maintenance: Most of ICT projects in schools and colleges are no longer functional due to lack of maintenance, advancing technologies, lack of fund and change of government policies. Etc. For example, co-ordination, there are multiple stake holders involved for ICT in education, effective use of ICT in education requires co-ordination. Developing national ICT in education master plans can provide framework for better co- ordination, and security wise and also a systematic monitoring and evaluation of ICT in schools must be checked. (Sungsup Ra and Lim Cherpin: 2018). C. Lack of political will to support ICT usage: In Nigeria our schools, especially the primary and secondary education levels, even tertiary institutions most of the support came from donor agencies such as (TETFUND), NCC and foreign aid assistance etc, which are of many in the country. In this case, the government of Nigeria Should embark on massive computer literacy training programme nation-wide, which should be sponsored base on political zones. This should be accomplished through in-service training for teachers, workshop, seminar and conference. D. Inadequate provision of modern ICT facilities: Ismail Musa, (2012, p. 13) reiterates that schools and teachers need to be well equipped with digital resources, especially with (ICT) based multimedia materials, such as mobile library with variety of E-text, audio, images and other useful sources. The Nigerian National policy for information communication and technology (FRN, 2001) emphasizes the need for implementation of ICT tools for 3 major objectives: 1. To empower the students with ICT skills. 2. To prepare the students for competitiveness in a global environment, integrate ICT into the main stream of education and training. 3. Establishment of multifaceted ICT institutions as centres of excellence. E. Irregular power supply: This included, government policy, inefficiency in power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. Government inconsistent energy have been a major contributor to the Nigerian energy crisis, for instance, the government’s policies for over fifty years now have been favoring monopoly in the power generation, transmission, distribution and sales. From the point of power generation in Nigeria, there is over fifty percent power loss. In order to address this problems, Upgrade of power distribution and transmission equipment should be considered: the new companies that took over electric power transmission and distribution business in Nig. Should embark on immediate upgrading of the power transmission and distribution of infrastructures. Etc. F. Lack of parental influence: Most parents nowadays don’t usually assist their wards in obtaining ICT education, it is obvious that today education can be obtained at home through ICT devices. E.g computer, laptop, television, C.D etc. most of these devices are educative in which keeping them at home is very important, but most parents don’t care to help their wards. In addressing this issue, parent should wake up to do the needful in educating their wards, it is incumbent upon them to support their children in which ever condition, especially as a Muslim you must know that parent are guardian of their children and they will be ask in the hereafter. G. Lack of Arabic language to use Islamic gadget: Most Islamic studies teachers don’t have adequate Arabic knowledge to be able to understand and interpreted Islamic gadget perfectly. This hindered and affected their ability to contribute in the ICT segment of Islamic studies. Islamic studies scholars most engage and learn perfect Arabic language for teaching other concepts, methods and how to operate in full, knowing Arabic language can help you to understand Arabic/Islamic gadgets for a clear demonstration and as a teaching aid. Statement of the problem Clearly ICT has a great impact to teaching and learning system. In other to use ICT to teach Islamic studies seven problems (Lack of technical knowhow by the teachers, Lack of maintenance Lack of political will to support ICT programme, Inadequate provision of modern ICT facilities, Irregular power supply, Interest of parental influence, Lack of Arabic language to use Islamic gadgets) have itemized as some of the challenges that militate the use of ICT International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD38715 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 3 | March-April 2021 Page 186 Aims and Objectives of the study This study intends to examine and analyze some problems that militate the effective use of ICT in Islamic education of both public and private secondary schools. Research Question The following are some of the questions which the study intends to answer. A. What are some of the problems that militate the effective use of ICT in Islamic education? B. What’s the difference between public and private secondary school teacher’s perception to the effective use of ICT on Islamic education? Hypothesis The following hypothesis is formulated to guide the study. Ho- There is no statistically significant difference between the determination of public and private secondary school in the effective use of ICT on Islamic education. Methodology The study used survey method as its research designed and construct a self-questionnaire for the respondents. Study Area The target population of the study comprised both public and private secondary schools in Jos North Plateau State. For the purpose of this research 11 public schools and 17 private schools were randomly sampled out of the secondary schools. The participants in this study are only Islamic studies teachers. Instrumentation The researchers constructed a questionnaire as an instrument and used for data collection from the respective teachers, the questionnaires were validated with the help of experts’ opinions of the respondents after certain modification. The questionnaire consists of two parts, Section A consists of personal data, and the Section B consist of questions that adopts five-pointLikert pattern response. The various responses were formulated as (No idea/ undecided) =1, (strongly disagree) =2, (disagree) =3, (agree) =4, (strongly agree) =5. Thus 49 questionnaires were randomly distributed to Islamic studies teachers or public secondary school while 62 were randomly distributed to Islamic studies teachers of private secondary schools I.e.111 respectively. Out of 111 questionnaire that were distributed only 101 were returned successful, 48 for public schools and 53 for private schools respectively. The administration of questionnaire was done with the authorization of principals and vice principals of each school. Analysis The data were analyzed in descriptive and using Mann Whitney Ustatistical test, using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 25. Figure 1 IV The above diagram is the conceptual frame work of Independents and Dependents variable Results and Discussion The results and findings are presented below in Five sections. The first section contains response of public-schoolteachers’ respondents. The second section evaluate the respondents of private school teachers. Section three present descriptive statistics with bar chart. Section four illustrate reliability testing and Lastly the sections five follows with the statistical analysis to show if there is statistical difference between the public and private secondary school teachers toward effective use of ICT on Islamic Education. Table 1: - Public School Teachers Responses S/n Item statement N No idea/ undecided Strongly disagree Disagree Agree Strongly agree Decision 1. What is the perception of teachers on ICT integration resources in Islamic education? 48 4 (8 .33%) 2 (4.16%) 7 (14.58%) 26 (54.16%) 9 (18.75%) A 2. Most Islamic studies teachers have less interest in ICT programme. 48 2 (4.16%) 8 (16.66%) 11 (22.916%) 13 (27.08%) 14 (29.16%) SA 3. Did you think teaching & learning of Islamic studies nowadays required knowledge of ICT? 48 1 (2.083%) 12 (25.00%) 16 (33.33%) 8 (16.66%) 11 (22.916%) D 4. Most ICT projects in school and colleges are not functional due to poor maintenance culture. 48 0 (0%) 2 (4.166%) 15 (31.25%) 12 (25.00%) 19 (29.583%) SA -Lack of technical knowhow by teachers. -Lack of maintenance. -Lack of political will to support ICT programme. -Inadequate provision of modern ICT facilities. -Irregular power supply. -Interest of parental influence. -Lack of Arabic language to use Islamic gadgets. -Lack of technical knowhow by teachers. Islamic education DV International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD38715 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 3 | March-April 2021 Page 187 5. The use of ICT positively affects teaching and learning process in Islamic studies. 48 6 (12.5%) 3 (6.25%) 9 (18.75%) 20 (41.66%) 10 (20.83%) A 6. Most pupils/students are not train for ICT programme in their school. 48 0 (0%) 4 (8.33%) 7 (14.583%) 16 (33.33%) 21 (43.75%) SA 7. Does the use of internet improve the Islamic research Sector? 48 3 (6.25%) 8 (16.66%) 6 (12.5%) 18 (37.5%) 13 (27.085% A 8. Most parents nowadays preferred to send their children to hawking after school hours rather than encouraging and motivating them with ICT devices for learning. 48 2 (4.16%) 10 (20.83%) 7 (14.583%) 14 (29.16%) 15 (31.25%) SA 9. Power supply has been a major issue in Nigeria. Which is directly affecting proper use of ICT. 48 0 (0%) 4 (8.33%) 6 (12.5%) 21 (43.75%) 17 (35.416%) A 10. With the aid of ICT mastering Quran, Hadith and Arabic language will be easy. 48 9 (18.7 5%) 8 (16.66%) 11 (22.916%) 14 (29.16%) 6 (12.5%) A The Table 1 above questionnaire, including 10 items in other to determine the problems that militate the effective use of ICT in Islamic education, it was found that majority agree with integration of ICT resource in there school for about (54.16%), this is an indication that ICT has a high impact towards Islamic education. Moreover, the teachers strongly agree that they have less interest in ICT program for about (29.16%). Substantially public-school teachers disagree with the knowledge of ICT as a benefitted factor for teaching & learning for about (33.33%). Poor maintenance has been a culture in public schools for about (31.25%). It was agreed that use of ICT positively affect Islamic education for about (41.66%). The public-school teachers strongly agree for about (43.75%) that most students are not train for ICT programme in their school, furthermore, undoubtedly public-school teachers agree that the use of internet improve Islamic education sector lack of parental interest have access to poor attainment of child to focus on ICT programme for about (31.25%). Public school teacher’s response to irregular power supply is being a major challenge for about (43.75%). It was shown that mastering of Quran and Hadith aid Arabic language easily using ICT, public teachers agree to about (29.16%) is an added advantage. Table 2: Private School Teachers Responses S/n Item statement N No idea/ undecided Strongly disagree Disagree Agree Strongly agree Decision 1. What is the perception of teachers on ICT integration resources in Islamic education? 53 0 (0%) 7 (13.207%) 3 (5.66%) 32 (60.377%) 11 (20.754%) A 2. Most Islamic studies teachers have less interest in ICT programme. 53 3 (5.66%) 12 (22.64%) 8 (15.04%) 21 (39.62%) 9 (16.98%) A 3. Did you think teaching & learning of Islamic studies nowadays required knowledge of ICT? 53 1 (1.886%) 14 (26.415%) 6 (11.32%) 19 (35.849%) 13 (24.52%) A 4. Most ICT projects in school and colleges are not functional due to poor maintenance culture. 53 0 (0%) 7 (13.20%) 8 (15.04%) 12 (22.64%) 26 (49.056%) SA 5. The use of ICT positively affects teaching and learning process in Islamic studies. 53 1 (1.88%) 4 (7.54%) 3 (5.66%) 18 (33.96%) 27 (50.943%) SA 6. Most pupils/students are not train for ICT programme in their school. 53 4 (7.54%) 5 (9.43%) 1 (1.88%) 24 (45.28%) 19 (35.84%) A 7. Does the use of internet improve the Islamic research Sector? 53 3 (5.66%) 11 (20.75%) 9 (16.98%) 17 (32.075%) 13 (24.52%) A 8. Most parents nowadays preferred to send their children to hawking after school hours rather than encouraging and motivating them with ICT devices for learning. 53 6 (11.32%) 13 (24.52%) 10 (18.86%) 14 (26.415%) 10 (18.867%) A 9. Power supply has been a major issue in Nigeria. Which is directly affecting proper use of ICT. 53 0 (0%) 1 (1.88%) 1 (1.88%) 20 (37.735%) 31 (58.49%) SA 10. With the aid of ICT mastering Quran, Hadith and Arabic language will be easy. 53 6 (11.32%) 10 (18.86%) 10 (18.86%) 15 (28.30%) 12 (22.64%) A The Table 2 evaluate the responses of private school teachers, it was agreed that private school teachers has high perception to ICT for about (60.377%). Private school teachers agree to have less interest in ICT programme for about (39.62%). International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD38715 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 3 | March-April 2021 Page 188 Furthermore, private school teachers strongly agree that teaching and learning of Islamic studies required ICT knowledge for about (35.849%) (49.056%) strongly agree with the poor maintenance of ICT tools. That are available. Private school teachers strongly agree ICT positively affect Islamic education for about (50.943%). Private school teachers identified most students does not have ICT knowledge for about (45.28%). Use of internet improve Islamic sector base on the respondents for about (32.075%). Influence of parents agree to the respondents affect their child for about (26.415%). Similarly, power supply is another constrain issue to the use of ICT in private school for about (58.49%). The two source of Islamic Quran, Hadith with Arabic language with aid of ICT private school teachers agree a learner would master it easily for about (28.30%). Table 3: Descriptive statistics of Private and Public-school teachers’ response STATISTICS Private_School_Teachers_Responses Public_School_Teachers_Responses N Valid 53 48 Missing 48 53 Median 41.0000 38.0000 Std. Deviation 10.47421 10.79959 As an evidence in Table 1 and 2, the table 3 shows the descriptive analysis of private school teachers responses median as 41.000 with 53 respondents and 10.47421 as standard deviation. The other column presents the respond of public-school teachers with 48 respondents as median is 38.0000 and 10.79959 as standard deviation. The overall information is summarized in the chart below: Fig 2: -Bar chart of private school teachers’ responses. Fig 3: -bar chart of public-schoolteachers’ responses. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD38715 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 3 | March-April 2021 Page 189 Reliability Testing The reliability testing is adopted for a research Instrument to be reliable, the researchers used Cronbach’s Alpha reliability testing to test the internal consistency of an instrument and it is also considered as a measurement for scale reliability. For this research work Likert scale ranged from (No idea/ undecided) =1, (strongly disagree) =2, (disagree) =3, (agree) =4, (strongly agree) =5. According to Kline (1999), the most accepted value of alpha is something equal or greater than 0.7. For this study, reliability test was conducted for both Public and Private secondary schoolquestionnaires. Table 4: Reliability Testing of Public School Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item- Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted PUQ1 32.88 96.154 .902 .987 PUQ2 32.98 92.914 .965 .986 PUQ3 33.25 94.532 .925 .987 PUQ4 32.58 98.248 .933 .987 PUQ5 33.08 92.589 .945 .986 PUQ6 32.46 97.785 .945 .987 PUQ7 32.96 92.168 .971 .985 PUQ8 32.96 91.956 .966 .986 PUQ9 32.52 98.808 .941 .987 PU10 33.58 90.844 .955 .986 The Table 4 shows the reliability test for the 10 items which alpha result is greater than 0.7 for each itemthis shows the instruments for the respondents is accepted. Table 5: Summary of the above reliability testing Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .988 10 As presented in the table 4, the table 5 summarized the = .988 for the 10 items.This indicate a very high reliable for the instruments. Table 6: Reliability Testing of Private School Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item- Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted PRQ1 33.70 93.715 .881 .983 PRQ2 34.19 87.156 .958 .980 PRQ3 34.04 87.345 .945 .980 PRQ4 33.51 88.947 .953 .980 PRQ5 33.34 91.344 .910 .981 PRQ6 33.66 87.998 .895 .982 PRQ7 34.09 86.049 .967 .980 PRQ8 34.42 85.055 .948 .980 PRQ9 33.06 98.439 .857 .985 PRQ10 34.26 84.275 .972 .980 The table 6 reliability testing shows the result value for the 10 items is greater than 0.7 which mean they are accepted and it can be considered as an instrument for the respondents Table 7: Summary of the above reliability testing Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .983 10 As presented in the table 6, the table7 summarized the = .983 for the 10 items this indicate a very high reliable for the instruments. Table 8: Summary of the rankings for the two groups Ranks Type of School N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Teachers Responses Public School Teachers Responses 48 49.45 2373.50 Private School Teachers Responses 53 52.41 2777.50 Total 101 International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD38715 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 3 | March-April 2021 Page 190 The table 8 shows the mean rank and sum of ranks of public-school teachers’ responses are 49.45 and 2373.50 respectively, while the private school teachers’ responses their mean rank and sum of ranks are 52.41 and 2777.50 respectively. The results obtain of mean rank was show insignificant difference between the school type of responses. Table 9: Hypothesis test summary .Test Statisticsa Teachers Responses Mann-Whitney U 1197.500 Wilcoxon W 2373.500 Z -.508 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .612 The table 9 output consist of test statistics and their significance, here we see that P value quoted next to Asymp. Sig. (2 tailed), is P=. 612 (reported as P>.05) we therefore have significant evidence to retain the null hypothesis that the group of public and private secondary school have insignificantly difference to the constraint of effective use of ICT on Islamic education. The finding of the study showed that both public and private school have insignificant difference was found as U = 1197.500, Z= -.508 at P>.05. this is an indication that P>Z where significantly we can accept the null hypothesis. This finding is supported by earlier study in either singly or combine such as S.A Kazeem etal, (2013), Maimun A. etal, (2011), Abdullahi Y. (2013) and others. Conclusion Undoubtedly, ICT is a potential tool for upgrading teaching and learning. This research focuses on constraint to effective use of ICT on Islamic education, the research revealed that there is insignificant difference between public and private secondary school considering the problems mentioned above, which indicate both the schools face the same challenges. Recommendation Following the findings of this research, it is recommended that: - A. There should be an implementation of ICT programme and resources for each and every school. B. A continues training of ICT skills should be adopted by school management for teachers upgrading. C. Parent should involve in motivating and encouraging their children by buying them learning devices for effectiveness. D. Our political leaders should engage in innovating ICT programme to their various zones. E. A skillful secretary should be involved in maintenance and upgrading of modern ICT resources. F. Government should impose compulsory ICT programme as amendment to curriculum to each and every school. 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