GAS SYSTEMS PIPING
Peter H.O. Fischer
Pipeline Project Manager
San Francisco, California
Natural gas is the cleanest of all fossil fuels. Plentiful supply, competitive cost, and
versatility continue to support an upward trend in the consumption of natural gas
on a worldwide scale. In addition to its traditional industrial and residential uses,
natural gas has made inroads as a motor fuel for fleet and private vehicles, and as
a supply for gas-fired cogeneration power plants and for use in fuel cells.
Increasingly, gas fields are being discovered in the remotest regions of the world.
Gas transportation and distribution to and within the industrial and/or populated
areas where it is needed is a significant factor in its development as an energy
resource. Over long distances, gas can be transported by pipelines or in liquid form
in ships. For local distribution, the gas can be delivered through piping distribution
networks or in trucks in liquid form.
This chapter addresses the transport and distribution of gas by pipelines and
piping systems. Throughout the chapter, reference will be made to Section B31.8
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code for Pressure
Piping, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. This is for convenience
only as it is beyond the scope of this endeavor to reference, cross-reference, or
compare the many excellent codes and standards that have been developed and
that are in use in other countries.
Section B31.8 of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping, Gas Transmission and
Distribution Piping Systems, defines gas as follows:
FIGURE C6.1 Gas transmission and distribution piping systems.2 (Ref. 8.)
Gas, as used in this Code, is any gas or mixture of gases suitable for domestic or
industrial fuel and transmitted or distributed to the user through a piping system.
The common types are natural gas, manufactured gas, and liquefied petroleum gas
distributed as a vapor, with or without t