AERONAUTICAL VESTPOCKET HANDBOOK Part No. P&W 79500 Twenty-Fourth Edition - First Printing July 2006 Printed in the U.S.A Table of Contents Introduction Soaring Through Time .. 1 Pratt & Whitney Contact Information .... 12 Technical Data Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 15 Miscellaneous Conversions Weights and Measures ......... 28 Weights of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Heat and Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 31 Standard Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Compressible Flow Functions ............................. .44 General Properties of Air ................................. 71 General Properties of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 73 Atmospheric Viscosity ................................... 75 Specific Heats of Air at Low Pressures ...................... 76 Specific Heats of Products of Combustion .................... 77 Properties of Materials ................................... 80 Properties of Elements ................................... 88 Physical Constants ...................................... 94 Metric System (SI) - SI Base and Supplementary Units . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 98 - SI Derived Units .................................... 99 - Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... 102 - Metric Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 SI Prefixes Multiples and Subdivisions ................... 104 Aircraft Information Aerodynamic Terms ....................... . Aerodynamic Relationships . . . . . ... . Airspeed Relationships . . . . . . ... . Aircraft Noise Regulations and Restlictions Absolute World Records . Airlines and Airports Two Letter Designation Codes of Selected Airlines Major International Airport . ....... 108 . . .. . . .. 109 . .110 17 .120 125 Aviation Fuels and Lubricants Jet Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aviation Fuel and Lubricant Specifications Gas Turbine Engines . ... 130 ... 131 Engine Types Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 134 Engine Types Station Designations . . . . . . . . . . .138 Turbojet and Turbofan Engine Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 141 Gas Turbine Engine Symbols Used by Pratt & Whitney . . ..... 145 Gas Turbine Subscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... 147 Pratt & Whitney Engine Characteristics ..................... 148 Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC) Engine Characteristics ........ 156 Gas Turbine Parameter Correction Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 161 Theta Tables . . . . ...................................... 162 Compressor Inlet Pressure Recovery ....................... 170 Compressor Inlet Pressures and Temperatures ................ 171 Rocket Engines Other Reaction Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ 190 Liquid Rocket Engine Cycles ............................. 192 Theoretical Rocket Engine Propellant Summary . . ............ 196 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Propellants ....................... 198 Specific Gravities of Liquid Propellants ..................... 199 Liquid Rocket Engine Symbols ........................... 200 Rocket Engine Equations ................................ 203 Rocket Engine Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 Cryogenic Liquid Rocket Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 206 U.S. Military U.S. Military Aircraft Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Standardized MDS Designator Symbols and Descriptions for Guided Missiles, Rockets, Probes, Boosters and Satellites . . . . . . . . . . The United States Military Enlisted Rand Insignia The United States Military Officer Rank Insignia HSo and World Maps World Time Zones U.S. Time Zones ii . .210 .211 INTRODUCTION Soaring Through Time Frederick Brant Rentschler founded Pratt & Whitney Aircraft in 1925 dming the early years of powered flight. With a small group of selected engineers, he set out to develop a new, lightweight air-cooled engine with a thrust-to-weight ratio unheard of at a time when heavier liquid-cooled engines were the standard. On Christmas Eve of 1925, the company's first engine was completed. It was an air-cooled radial piston with 1340 cubic inches of displacement that featured a revolutionary design for the crankshaft and master rod, and weighed only 650 pounds. Called the Wasp, it was an immediate success, shattering one record after another for speed, climb, performance at altitude and reliability. From the mid-1920s through the mid-1940s, Pratt & Whitney designed eight different air-cooled radial models and produced hundreds of thousands of engines for military and commercial applications. R-1340 Wasp was in production from 1926 to 1960, with almost 35,000 engines manufactured. Charles Lindbergh shattered the transcontinental speed record in 1930 and Amelia Earhart made history with their Wasp-powered aircraft. Some major installations included Amphiblions N-2-C Atlantic C-5 Boeing Model 40A Lockheed C-17 Vega Vought 02U Corsair R-1690 Hornet was power plant during the early growth years of commercial air transportation. Initially rated at 525 horsepower, later models developed more than 875 horsepower. Some popular installations included American Airplane & l 00A Pilgram BoeingYB-9 Boeing Model 40-B Keystone LB-7, 8, lOA, 12, 03U-2 Corsair R-985 Wasp Jr. was a smaller, 300 horsepower radial engine designed for sport aircraft, helicopters and light transports. More than 39,000 hornet engines were produced with some popular installations as: Airspeed Oxford V Beech F-2 Kansas Beech l 8S Series Bell Model 42 Sikorsky S-51 Spartan UC-71 Executive R-1535 Twin Wasp Jr. was Pratt & Whitney's first air-cooled piston engine designed in a twin-row configuration. It produced 825 horsepower with some popular installations as Boeing Model 247 A Douglas 0-46A Fokker G-1 Northrop A-17, 17A Nomad Northrop BT-I R-1830 Twin Wasp was a twin-row engine that displaced 1830 cubic inches and delivered up to 1350 horsepower. A popular engine during World War II, 173,618 Twin Wasp engines were built - more than any other aircraft engine in history. Some popular installations included Consolidated Vultee B-24 (PB4Y-1) Liberator Douglas DC3A (C-41) Douglas C-47 (R4D) Dakota Skytrain Ford C-109 Flying Tanker Grumman F4F Wildcat R-2000 Twin Wasp was a derivative of the R-1830 built specifically for Douglas' DC-4 aircraft. It delivered 1300 horsepower on 90 octane fuel, with later models producing up to 1450 horsepower. Some popular installations included Cancargo CBY-3 Loadrnaster Douglas DC-4 (C-54, R5D) 'CLnc;,n"lC't;:,,r de Havilland DH C-4 Caribou R-2800 Double Wasp was an 18-cylinder, twin-row engine that provided up to 2,500 horsepower with improved water injection and turbo-supercharging systems. Some popular installations included Grumman F6F Hellcat Grumman F7F Tigercat Grumman F8F Bearcat Republic P-4 7 Thunderbolt Sikorsky S-56 (H-37, HR2S) R-4360 Wasp Major was the largest and last piston engine built by Pratt & Whitney. This powerful spiraling four-row, 28-cylinder configuration delivered up to 4,300 horsepower. Some popular installations included Boeing B-50 Boeing C-97, Model 377 Stratocruiser Boeing B-377PG Pregnant Guppy Douglas C-74 Globemaster I Douglas C-124 Globemaster II Pratt & Whitney was the revered king of piston engine power. However, technology was moving aviation toward the faster and higher-performing jet engine, an area unfamiliar to Pratt & Whitney at the time. The start was slow. But, soon, in the early 50s, the company leapfrogged the industry with the J57 jet engine - a design that was as popular as the Wasp. The 1950s were also a time of growth and diversification for the company. Pratt & Whitney Canada, an overhaul affiliate founded in 1928, started designing and manufacturing small aircraft engines and the company also entered the field of liquid-fueled rocket propulsion. In addition, during the next decade the company directed its business interests towards new markets in marine and industrial electric power generating applications. J42 Turbo Wasp was a centrifugal-flow turbojet developing 5,000 pounds of thrust. Grumman F9F-2 Panther capable of J48 Turbo Wasp was a centrifugal-How turbojet engine that developed 7,250 pounds of thrust and up to 8,750 pounds of thrust with Grumman F9F-5 Panther Grumman F9F-6, 8 Cougar Lockheed F-94C Starfire 4 T34 was an axial-flow turbojet producing up to 7,200 horsepower. It was featured on the Douglas C-133 Cargomaster Boeing B-377SG Super Guppy Boeing C-97 J Lockheed C-121F Constellation J57 (JT3 Commercial) turbojet was aviation's first axial-flow, dual- spool engine configuration. Producing up to 19,600 pounds with afterbuming, more than 21,000 engines were built. Some popular installations included McDonnell F-101 Voodoo General Dynamics F-102 Delta Dagger Boeing B-52 Stratofortress Lockheed C-135A Stratolifter Ling-Temco Vought F-8 Crusader Douglas A3D Skywarrior Douglas F4D, F5D Skyray Boeing 707-120 J75 (JT4 Commercial) was a dual-spool turbojet capable of producing up to 26,500 pounds of thrust with afterbuming. The engine's core was also used for industrial and marine applications. Popular installations included Republic F-105 Thunderchief General Dynamics F-106 Delta Dart Boeing 707-220, -320 McDonnell Douglas DC-8-20, -30 North American F-107 A J52 was an axial-flow non-afterbuming turbojet in the 8,500 to 11,200 pound thrust class. McDonnell Douglas A-4 series Skyhawk Grumman A-6 series Intruder North American Rockwell Missile AGM-28 Hound J60 (JT12 Commercial) is the company's smallest turbojet.) spool configuration that produced 3,300 pounds of thmst. Rockwell International T-2B Buckeve Rockwell International T-39A Sabe;liner Lockheed Cl40 Jetstar 5 J58 was the company's most powerful turbojet. Producing 30,000 pounds of thrust, it powered Lockheed's SR-17 Blackbird at speeds as high as Mach no. 3 and altitudes in excess of 80,000 feet. Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird Lockheed YF-12A JFTD12 was a higher thmst, turboshaft version of the sm1sie-snnrn JT12 engine. It produced 4,800 shaft horsepower. Sikorsky S-64 Skyplane Sikorsky CH-54A TF33 (JT3D Commercial) was a low-bypass ratio turbofan derivative of the JT3 turbojet. It is capable of 23,000 pounds of thrust. Some popular models included Boeing 707-120B, 320B, & C, 323C McDonnell Douglas DC-8-50, 60 Boeing B-52H Stratofortress Boeing KC-135B Stratotanker Lockheed C-141A Starlifter Boeing V C-13 7B, C Presidential Plane RLlO was the first liquid-fueled engine to operate successfully in space. A regenerative-cooled, pressure-fed, expanding-cycle engine, it was used to help launch a number of spacecraft such as the Voyager, Viking and Pioneer. JT8D family, a low-bypass ratio and axial-flow series of turbofan engines, was considered commercial aviation's workhorse from the 1960s through the 1980s as well as the benchmark for low maintenance cost. The engine's core was also used for industrial applications. The engine family covered the 14,000 to 17,400 pound thrust range. Installations included Boeing 727 Boeing 737 McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Saab 37 Series Viggin Japan C-1 McDonnell Douglas MD-80 Series 6 TF30 was a low-bypass ratio turbofan of producing more than 25,000 pounds thrust with its unique ea!m-zor1e afterburning system. General Dynamics F-111 LTV A-7 A, B, C Corsair II Grumman F-14A Tomcat PT6, the first developed by Pratt & Whitney Canada, covered the 580 to 2000 horsepower range and was used in more than 100 applications. Some popular installations included Raytheon Beech C90 Raytheon Beech Super King Air 200 de Havilland Canada Twin Otter de Havilland Canada Dash 7 Piper Cheyenne Bell UH-IN Twin Huey Bell AN- IJ Sea Cobra Sikorsky S-58T Sikorsky S-76 The 1970s at Pratt & Whitney saw additional technological achievements, a range of new products and business expansions that would carry the company through the early 1990s. Commercial aviation entered a new era with the high-bypass ratio engine and jumbo jetliner, while military aircraft started a wave of power supremacy with the Fl 00 series engine family. Both Pratt & Whitney's small engine and large commercial engine businesses flourished with a number of new turbofan products. JT9D family, covering a thrust range from 46,300 to 56,000 pounds, was the first high-bypass ratio turbofan engine to serve commercial aviation on a new generation of wide-bodied aircraft, starting with Boeing's 747 aircraft. Some popular installations included Boeing 747 Boeing 767 McDonnell Douglas DC-10-40 Airbus A310 Airbus A300-600 7 JTlSD, Pratt & Whitney Canada's first small turbofan, covered the 2,200 to 2,900 pound thrust range. It powered such aviation aircraft as Aerospatiale Augusta S2 l 1, S211A Corvette Beech T-lA Jayhawk Cessna Citation I, II, SII Cessna Citation V, Ultra Peregrine by Gulfstream Aerospace FlOO family is a high-performance, low-bypass ratio turbofan in the 25,000 pound thrust range with full afterbuming and an 8-to-l thrust- to-weight ratio. McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon Fl19 is a turbofan in the 35,000 pound thrust class capable of supersonic cruise without an afterburner and thrust vectoring with a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle. Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor PWl00 series is a centrifugal turboprop engine that covers the 1800 to 2750 range of shaft horsepower. Its 25 different models powers regional transports as well as utility and corporate aircraft. Aerospatiale-Alenia ATR42-300/400/500/3200 Aerospatiale-Alenia ATR-72-210/500 Conadiar CL-215T/CL-415 Bombardier Aerospace QlO0, Q200, Q300 Ilysuhin IL-114-100 Bombardier Aerospace Q400 PW200 is a centrifugal flow turboshaft configuration produced by Pratt & Whitney Canada and designed for light helicopters requiring 500 to 900 shaft horsepower. Augusta Al09 Bell 427 Eurocopter EC 135 Kaman Ansat McDonnell Douglas MD "-'AfJn.Hvt 8 PW2000 is a modem high-bypass ratio engine in the 37 ,000- to 41,700-pound thrust class. It introduced the full-authority electronic control (FADEC) to commercial aviation. Boeing 757 Fll7, a military version of the PW2000 commercial engine, is rated at 41,700 pounds of thrust. McDonnell Douglas C-17 Globemaster III V2500, which covers the 18,000- to 33,000-pound thrust range, is a two-spool turbofan developed by a five nation consortium, called International Aero Engines, in which Pratt & Whitney is a major shareholder. Airbus A319 Airbus A320 Airbus A321 Boeing MD-90 PW300 is a dual-spool, axial-flow turbofan in the 4,600- to 7,000- pound thrust range designed to power business aircraft for intercontinental and transcontinental missions. Installations include Fairchild Dornier 328 Jet Envoy 3 IAI Galaxy Learjet Model 60 Raytheon Hawker 1000 Raytheon Hawker Horizon Gulfstream G200 Cessna Citation Sovereign Dassault 2000 EX Falcon PW4000 94-inch fan engine is the first in a family of high-thrust models, covering the 52,000- to 62,000-pound thrust range, for wide- bodied aircraft. A prominent feature is a large core for anticipated thrust growth. Boeing 747 Boeing 767 Airbus A300 Airbus A310-300 Boeing MD-11 9 PWS00 is a turbofan engine in the 3,000- to 4,500-pound thrust class featuring advanced technologies to lower noise and emissions. Some installations are Cessna Bravo Cessna Excel Cessna Ultra Encore Cessna UC-35C/D PW4000 100-inch fan engine, the first growth model in the PW4000 high thrust family, covers the 64,000- to 68,000-pound thrust range and was designed specifically for the A330 wide-bodied aircraft. It was the first derivative engine approved for early ETOPS ( extended- range twin-engine operations). Airbus A330 Through the 1990s and into the next of the century, Pratt & Whitney power dominated the military market as well as maintained a strong presence in small and large commercial aircraft business segments. Parallel with developing new technologies and products, the company focused on significantly expanding its maintenance services capabilities. Through acquisitions, joint ventures and partnerships, the company quickly strategically positioned itself as a premier provider of overhaul, repair and customer-tailored maintenance programs not only for Pratt & Whitney models, but also for competitor engines. Also, in 2004, Pratt & Whitney acquired Rocketdyne, a world leader in the manufacture of solid and liquid rocket engines since the early 1950s. Complementing its liquid engine products, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne was the clear leader in space propulsion. PW4000 112-inch fan engine is the highest thrust turbofan built by the company, covering the 74,000 to 98,000 pound thrust range. A dual- spool, I 0-foot diameter fan design with many technological advancements, it was aviation's first aircraft engine to receive 180- minute ETOPS before revenue service. Boeing 777 se1ies P135 Joint Strike Fighter rated in the 35,000 pound thrust class, combines a derivative of the Fl 19's core with several technological enhancements in electronics, lift-fan orcmu1s1cm and aerothermodynantics. Lockheed Martin F-35 10 PW6000 turbofan, with 18,000 to 24,000 pounds thrust, is designed with advanced aerodynamics for fewer compressor and turbine stages, ..,._,,.u . "'h in a substantial reduction in maintenance and operating costs. Airbus A318 Airbus A3 l 8 Elite RLlOB-2 produces 24,750 pounds specific thrust and features a carbon-carbon extendible nozzle that enables a remarkable 465.6 seconds of impulse. PW600 is a 2,400-pound thrust dual-spool turbofan used for business and aviation aircraft. Eclipse 500 Cessna Mustang GP7000 is a high-thrust, dual spool turbofan in the 72,000- to 81,000- pound thrust range developed by the Engine Alliance, a partnership between Pratt & Whitney and General Electric. AirbusA380 RL60 is an advanced liquid-hydrogen upper stage power plant in the 50,000 to 65,000 pound thrust range. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne offers a range of products that power installations such as the Space Shuttle, Atlas rockets, and the Delta II/III/IV launch vehicles. For decades, Pratt & Whitney has brought leadership in technical innovation to aviation. Going into the future, it remains clear that" ... only the best airplane can be built around the best engine," as profoundly stated by Frederick Rentschler. It's been that way at Pratt & Whitney since 1925. I, Pratt & Whitney Contact Information Corporate Headquarters Pratt & Whitney 400 Main Street East Hartford, CT 06108 United States: 860.565.4321 24 Hour Customer Help Desk Airline Support United States: 800.565.0140 International: 860.565.0140 help24@pw.utc.com Military Customer Technical Support United States: 800.526.1159 Support Equipment Operations Technical Support United States: 800.233.1849 Power Systems Customer Support United States: 866.769.3725 (866.POWER-ALL) info@pw.utc.com Pratt & Whitney Canada Main Switchboard 450.677.9411 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Jeff Kincaid, V.P. Engineering 818.586.4469/jeffrey.kincaid@pwr.utc.eom Web site ww\v.pw.utc.com 12 TECHNICAL DATA 14 Conversion Factors Multiply By To obtain acre 4.3560 X 104 square feet 4.0469 X }0-1 hectares 4.0469 X }03 square meters 1.5625 X 10-3 square miles 4.8400 X }03 square yards atmosphere 7.6000 X 10 centimeters of mercury (atm) (1962) 2.9921 X 10 inches of mercury 1.0332 X 104 kilograms/ square meter 1.0133 X 105 newtons/ square meter 1.4696 X 10 pounds/ square inch bar 9.8962 X 10-1 atmospheres 1.0000 X 106 dynes/ square centimeter 7.5006 X 102 millimeters of mercury 1.0000 X 1()5 newtons/ square meter 1.4504 X 10 pounds/ square inch barn 1.0000 X 10-24 square centimeters (nuclear cross-section) barrel, liquid 3.1500 X 10 gallons {U.S.) 1.1924 X lQ-1 cubic meters British thermal 2.5180 X JQ2 calories (post-1956 1ST) unit (Btu) 7.7817 X }()2 foot-pounds 1.0551 X 1010 ergs 3.9301 X 10-4 horsepower-hours 1.0551 X 103 joules 1.0551 X 103 newton-meters 2.9302 X IQ-4 kilowatt-hours 1.0551 X 103 watt-seconds British thermal 4.1999 calories/ second unit/minute 1.7548 X 108 ergs/ second (Btu/min) 1.2970 X 10 foot-pounds/ second 2.3581 X 10- 2 horsepower 1.7548 X 10 joules/ second 1.7931 kilogram-meters/ second 1.7548 X 10 watts ' ~-~--=--"""'""-~"=- 15 Conversion Factors ( continued) Multiply By To obtain calorie 3.9683 X lQ-3 British thermal units (cal) 3.0880 foot-pounds 4.1868 X 1Q7 ergs 4.1868 joules 1.1630 X 10-6 kilowatt-hours 4.1868 watt-seconds calorie/ second 2.3810 X 10-1 British thermal (cal/sec) units/minute 4.1868 X 101 ergs/ second 3.0880 foot-pounds/ second 4.1868 joules/ second centimeter 3.2808 X lQ-2 feet (cm) 3.9370 X }0-1 inches 1.0000 X 1Q-S kilometers 1.0000 X lQ-2 meters 1.0936 X tQ-2 yards centimeter/ 3.2808 X J0-2 feet/second second 3.9370 X lQ-1 inches/ second (cm/sec) 1.0000 X 10- 2 meters/ second centipoise 6.7197 X }0-4 pounds (mass)/ second-foot 3.6000 kilograms/ hour-meter chain ].0000 X 1Q2 links (surveyor) 2.2000 X 10 yards 6.6000 X 10 feet 2.0117 X 10 meters cord 1.2800 X 102 cubic feet cubic centimeter 1.0000 X I0-3 cubic decimeters (cm3) 3.5315 X 10-5 cubic feet 6.1024 X 10-2 cubic inches 1.0000 X }Q-6 cubic meters 1.3080 X 10-6 cubic yards cubic decimeter 1.0000 X 103 cubic centimeters (liter) 3.5315 X lQ-2 cubic feet (dm3) 6.1024 X 10 cubic inches 1.0000 X 10-3 cubic meters 1.3080 X lQ-3 cubic yards 16 Multiply By To obtain cubic foot 2.8317 X 104 cubic centimeters (ft3) 2.8317 X 10 cubic decimeters 1.7280 X 103 cubic inches 2.8317 X lQ-2 cubic meters 3.7037 X 10-2 cubic yards cubic foot H2O (60F) 6.2366 X 10 pounds cubic inch 1.6387 X 10 cubic centimeters (in3) 1.6387 X 10-2 cubic decimeters 5.7870 X 10-4 cubic feet 1.6387 X to-5 cubic meters 2.1433 X }0-5 cubic yards cubic meter 1.0000 X 1()6 cubic centimeters (m3) 1.0000 X 103 cubic decimeters 3.5315 X 10 cubic feet 6.1024 X 104 cubic inches 1.3080 cubic yards cubic yard 7.6455 X 1Q5 cubic centimeters (yd3) 1.6455 X 102 cubic decimeters 2.7000 X 10 cubic feet 4.6656 X 104 cubic inches 7.6455 X 10-1 cubic meters curie 3.7000 X 1010 disintegrations/ second degree 6.0000 X 10 minutes (deg) 1.7453 X JQ-2 radians 2.7778 X 10- 3 revolutions 3.6000 X J03 seconds dyne 1.0197 X }Q-3 grams 1.0197 X 10- 6 kilograms 1.0000 X lQ-5 newtons 3.5970 X lQ-5 ounces 2.2481 X }0-6 pounds dyne/ square 2.9530 X 10-5 inches of mercury centimeter 1.0197 X lQ-2 kilograms/ square meter 7 .5006 X 10-4 millimeters of mercury 1. 0000 X 10 newtons/ square meter 1.4504 X lQ~ 5 pounds/ square inch 17 Conversion Factors ( continued) Multiply By To obtain electron volt 3.8268 X 10-20 calories (eV) 1.6022 X 10-12 ergs 1.0000 X 10-6 MeV(mega electron volts) erg 9.4782 X 10-11 British thermal units 2.3885 X 10-8 calories 1.0000 dyne-centimeters 7 .3756 X lQ-8 foot-pounds 1.0000 X 10- 7 joules erg/second 5.6869 X lQ-9 British thermal units/minute 2.3885 X lQ-8 calories/ second 7.3756 X lQ-8 foot-pounds/ second 1.0000 X 10- 7 joules/ second 1.0000 X 10- 7 watts flow rate, fuel 4.5359 X }Q-1 kilograms/ hour (lb/hr) foot 3.0480 X 10 centimeters (ft) 1.2000 X 10 inches 3.0480 X 10-4 kilometers 3.0480 X lQ-1 meters 1.8939 X lQ-4 miles 3.3333 X lQ- l yards foot-pound 1.2851 X 10-3 British thermal units (ft-lb) J.3558 X }07 ergs 5.0505 X }0-7 horsepower-hours 1.3558 joules 3.7662 X 10-1 kilowatt-hours 1.3558 newton-meters foot-pound/ 7.7104 X 10-2 British thermal units/minute second 3.2383 X lQ-1 calories/ second (ft-lb/ sec) 1.8182 X lQ-3 horsepower 1.3558 joules/second 1.3826 X 10-1 kilogram-meters/ second 1.3558 watts foot/ second 3.0480 X IO centimeters/ second (fps) 1.0973 kilometers/ hour 5.9248 X lQ- knots 3.0480 X 10 meters/ second 6.8182 X 10- miles/hour 18 Multiply By To obtain furlong 1.0000 X 10 chains 2.2000 X 1()2 yards 2.0117 X 102 meters gallon (lJ. S.) 1.3368 X 10-1 cubic feet (gal) 3.7854 liters 3.7854 X 10-3 cubic meters 8.0000 pints 4.0000 quarts gram 1.0000 X 10-3 kilograms (gm) 3.5274 X lQ-2 ounces 2.2046 X 10-3 pounds 9.8067 X }()2 dynes 9.8067 X }Q-3 newtons hectare 2.4711 acres 1.0000 X 102 ares 1.0000 X 1 ()4 square meters 3.8610 X 10-3 square miles horsepower 4.2436 X 10 British thermal (hp) units/minute 5.5000 X 102 foot-pounds/ second 3.3000 X 104 foot-pounds/ minute 7 .4570 X 102 joules/ second 7.6040 X 10 kilogram-meters/ second 7.4570 X }()2 watts horsepower-hour 2.5461 X }03 British thermal units (hp hr) 1.9800 X f ()6 foot-pounds 2.6845 X IQ6 joules 7.4570 X }Q-1 kilowatt-hours hour 6.0000 X 10 minutes (hr) 3.6000 X 1Q3 seconds 4.1781 X 10-2 sidereal days 4.1667 X 10-2 solar days 1.1416 X 10-4 solar years imperial gallon 2.7742 X 1Q2 cubic inches 1.2009 gallons (U.S.) 4.5460 liters --"''""'""=-~--~_,____,_, 19 Conversion Factors (continued) ----------------------~---- Multiply inch (in) inch of mercury at 0C (in Hg) inch/second {ips) inch of water at 4C (in H20) joule (J) kilogram (kg) kilogram/ square meter (kg/m2) By 2.5400 8.3333 X J0-2 2.5400 X lQ-2 2.7778 X IQ-2 3.3421 X lQ-2 3.3864 X lQ-2 3.3864 X }()4 1.3595 X 10 2.5400 X 10 3.3864 X 103 7.0727 X 10 4.9116 X lQ-1 8.3333 X lQ-2 2.5400 2.5400 X lQ-2 2.4584 X 10-3 7 .3556 X I0-2 1.8683 2.4910 X 102 3.6128 X 10-2 9.4771 X lQ-4 2.3889 X lQ-1 1.0000 X 107 1.0000 X 107 7.3756 X I0-1 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 X 103 3.5274 X 10 2.2046 6.8521 X 1Q-2 9.8067 7.9290 X 10 9.6783 X lQ-5 9.8067 X lQ-5 2.8959 X 10-3 9.8067 20 To obtain centimeters feet meters yards atmospheres bars dynes/ square centimeter inches of water millimeters of mercury newtons/ square meter pounds/ square feet pounds/square inch feet/ second centimeters/ second meters/ second atmospheres inches of mercury millimeters of mercury newtons/ square meter pounds/ square inch British thermal units calories dyne-centimeters ergs foot-pounds newton-meters watt-seconds grams ounces pounds slugs newtons poundals atmospheres bars inches of mercurv newtons/ square ineter Multiply kilogram/ square meter (kg/m2) kilogram-meter {kgm) kilogram-meter/ second (kgm/sec) kilometer (km) By 6.5895 2.0482 X I0-1 1.4223 X tQ-3 9.2938 X 10-3 7.2330 9.8067 9.8067 2.7232 X I0-6 3.3458 X 10 2.3423 7.2330 9.8067 1.3151 X I0-2 9.8067 X 10-3 3.2808 X ]03 3.9370 X JCJ4 1.0000 X loJ 6.2137 X JO- I 1.0936 X JoJ kilometer/ hour 9 .1130 x 10 - 1 (km/hr) 5.3960 x 10-1 6.2137 X IO- 1 2.7778 X J0-1 kilonewton (kN) kilowatt hour (kWh) knot (kt} league (U .S,) 2.2481 X 1()2 3.4128 X 1Q3 2.6560 X 1()6 1.3414 3.6000 X J()6 3.6721 X 1Q5 3.6000 X }()6 1.6878 1.1516 1.8532 5.1480 X 10- 3.0000 To obtain poundals / square foot pounds I square foot pounds/ square inch British thermal units foot-pounds joules newton-meters kilowatt-hours British thermal units/hour calories/ second foot-pounds/ second joules/second horsepower kilowatts feet inches meters miles yards feet/second knots miles/hour meters/ second pounds British thermal units foot-pounds horsepower-hours joules kilogram-meters watt-seconds feet/ second miles/hour kilometers/ hour meters/ second nautical miles --------- ~ s.-...... ,. .. -----~-- ..- .. , .... ,,, ... Conversion Factors ( continued) -""'""'~-~ Multiply By To obtain light year 3.1040 X 1016 feet 5.8786 X 1012 miles 9.4608 X 101s meters liter 6.1024 X 10 cubic inches {l) 3.5315 X 10- 2 cubic feet 2.6417 X I0-1 gallons {U.S. liquid) 1.0000 X to-3 cubic meters 2.1134 pints {U.S. liquid) 1.0567 quarts (U.S. liquid) meter 1.0000 X 102 centimeters (m) 3.2808 feet 3.9370 X 10 inches 1.0000 X 10- 3 kilometers 6.2137 X }0- 4 miles 1.0936 yards meter/ second 3.2808 feet/ second {m/sec) 3.6000 kilometers/ hour 1.9438 knots 2.2369 miles/hour metric 9.8632 X J0-1 horsepower horsepower 7.3550 X 10-1 kilowatts mile 5.2800 X 103 feet (mi) 6.3360 X 104 inches 1.6093 kilometers 1.6093 X 1Q3 meters 3.2000 X 102 rods 1.7600 X IQ3 yards mile/hour 1.4667 feet/second (mph) 1.6093 kilometers/hour 8.6898 X 10-1 knots 4.4704 X 10-1 meters/ second millimeter of 1.3332 X }03 dynes/ square centimeter mercury at 3.9370 X 10-2 inches of mercury (0C) 0C (torr) 5.3526 X 10-1 inches of water (4C) (mm Hg) 1.3332 X 102 newtons/ square meter 1.9337 X 10- pounds/ square inch ~""~.....-,=............_~ ... 22 Multiply By To obtain minute {angle) 1.6667 X 10-2 degrees (min) 2.9089 X lQ-4 radians 4.6296 X 10-s revolutions 6.0000 X 10 seconds minute (time) 1.6667 X 10- 2 hours (min) 6.0000 X 10 seconds 6.9444 X 10- 4 solar days 1.9026 X 10-6 solar years nautical mile 6.0761 X 103 feet (international) 1.8520 X 103 meters (n mi) newton 1.0000 X 105 dynes (N) 1.0197 X 102 grams 1.0197 X lQ-1 kilograms 2.2481 X lQ-1 pounds 7.2330 poundals newton/ 9.8692 X 10-6 atmospheres square meter 1.0000 X 10 dynes / square centimeter (pascal (Pa)) 2.9530 X 10-4 inches of mercury (0C) (N/m2) 1.0197 X 10-1 kilograms/ square meter 6.7200 X 10-1 poundals / square foot 2.0885 X 10-2 pounds/ square foot 1.4504 X 10-4 pounds/ square inch ounce 2.8349 X 10 grams (oz) 2.8349 X JQ-2 kilograms 6.2500 X l0-2 pounds 1.9428 X tQ- 3 slugs 2.7801 X }Q4 dynes parsec 1.9163 X J013 miles 3.0857 X 1016 meters pieze 1.0000 X 103 newtons/ square meter pint (US.) 1.6710 X 10-2 cubic feet (pt) 1.2500 X 10- gallons 4.7317 X 10-1 liters 4.7317 X 10-4 cubic meters 5.0000 X 10-- 1 quarts 23 Conversion Factors ( continued) Multiply By To obtain pound (mass) 4.5359 X 102 grams (lb) 4.5359 X 10-1 kilograms 1.6000 X 10 ounces 3.1081 X 10-2 slugs pound (force) 4.4482 newtons (lbf) 4.4482 X 10-1 dekanewtons 4.4482 X lQ-3 kilo newtons 3.2174 X 10 poundals pound/ 4.7254 X 10-4 atmospheres square foot 4.7880 X }0-4 bars (psf) 4.7880 X 1()2 dynes / square centimeter 1.4139 X 10-2 inches of mercury (0C) 4.8824 kilograms/ square meter 4.7880 X 10 newtons I square meter 3.2174 X 10 poundals/ square foot 6.9444 X I0-3 pounds/square inch pound/ 6.8046 X 10-2 atmospheres square inch 6.8948 X 1()4 dynes / square centimeter (psi) 2.0360 inches of mercury (0C) 2.7681 X 10 inches of water {4C) 7 .0307 X 1()2 kilograms/ square meter 6.8948 X 1Q3 newtons/ square meter 4.6333 X 1Q3 poundals / square foot 1.4400 X 1Q2 pounds/ square foot poundal 1.4098 X 10-2 kilograms 1.3825 X 10-1 newtons 3.1081 X 10- 2 pounds poundal/ 1.5174 X 10- 1 kilograms/ square meter square foot 1.4882 X 10-1 newtons/square meter 3.1081 X 10-2 pounds/ square foot 2.1583 X 10- 4 pounds/ square inch quart (U.S.) 3.3421 X 10-2 cubic feet liquid (qt) 2.5000 X 10-1 gallons 9.4635 X 10-1 liters 9.4635 X 10-4 cubic meters 2.0000 pints =., ~-,--~-~-

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