AA-12 ADDER R-77
The most recent Russian R-77 medium-range missiles (AA-12 "AMRAAMSKI") is similar to
and in some respects equal to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles. The R-77 missile
has an active radar finder and a maximim range of 90-100 kilometers (50 km more than
AMRAAM) and flies at four times the speed of sound.
The AA-12 has rectangular narrow span wings and a distinctive set of four rectangular control
surfaces at the rear. similar to the configuration used on the terminal control fins of the SS-21
'Scarab' and SS-23 'Spider' ballistic missiles. These unique control surfaces feature reduced
flow separation at high angles of attack, producing greater aerodynamic moment force than
conventional control surfaces. The missile's guidance is inertial with mid-course updates from
the launch aircraft, followed by a terminal active radar phase from an acquisition range of
about 20 kilometers. Development of the missile is believed to have begun around in 1982.