Volume 4 Issue 5
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 5 Issue 6, September-October 2021 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46423 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 402 Quality Improvement in Inclusive Education for Teacher Education Shaikh Mateen Latif PhD Scholar, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India ABSTRACT Inclusive elite is the need of an hour that can be made possible only when there is total encompassment in education. Now inclusive education is the most executable plan of getting across of education to each. The meaning of inclusion has emerged as a result of Social justice movement in the field of disability which emphasizes that the school create an environment in which children with special needs are seen as an active member of the social continuity with competence and capability for making positive contribution Inclusive education as a concept is notion that requires school to react to the varying abilities of children. Inclusive education is a human right approach and the philosophy for attaining equity, justice and quality education for all children, especially those who have been traditionally excluded from mainstream education due to disability, ethnicity, gender or other characteristics, it is a human right approach, UNESCO has defined that it is a process of addressing and responding to the diverse needs of all scholars by raising participation in learning and reducing expulsion in and from education. In this context of education, the restructuring of school on inclusive lines is a reflection of the Social model in action. KEYWORDS: Quality, Improvement, Inclusive Education, Teacher, Education How to cite this paper: Shaikh Mateen Latif "Quality Improvement in Inclusive Education for Teacher Education" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-5 | Issue-6, October 2021, pp.402-406, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd46423.pdf Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) INTRODUCTION The ultimate principle of inclusive school is that all children should learn unitedly wherever possible irrespective of any difficulties or variations they may have. Inclusive School must distinguish and respond to the different needs of their students, reconciling both different styles and rates of studying and ensuring quality education to all complete appropriate syllabus, teaching strategies, organizational arrangements, resource use and relationship with their communities. The elementary purpose of inclusive approach is to improve the quality of life through alleviating interactions between the children with and without distinct needs that would lend to both bonding and building a complete society. Teacher Education: Conceptual Framework However, a complete and successful implementation of inclusive education programs depends on a numbers of variables. One such variable, and perhaps the most important one, is the teacher education, Teacher education includes the policies and procedures designed to equip teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and skills they necessitate to perform their tasks efficaciously in the school and classroom. We may define teacher education as such established educational procedures that are awaited at the purposefully prepared preparation or further education of teachers who are engaged directly or indirectly in educational activities. Teacher education aims at helping the teacher in understanding the nature, abilities, aptitudes, developmental level, individual differences, emotion, instincts, Sentiments, ambitions of the child and assists them in making better adjustments. The Secondary Education Commission has rightly observed the need of teacher for improving the quality and standard of education, after reviewing the status and service conditions of teachers. Whatever policies may be established in the ultimate analysis these have to be inferred and implemented by teachers as much over their personal example as through teaching studying process. The National Educational policy has also asserted, “The status of the teacher ruminates the socio-cultural ethos of a culture; it is said that no people can enlargement above the level of its teachers. The Government and the community should enterprise to create conditions IJTSRD46423 International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46423 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 403 which will help motivate and inspire teachers on constructive and creative lines. Teachers should have the liberty to innovate to conceive appropriate methods of communication and actions relevant to the needs and proficiencies of the concerns of the community. Inclusion means full attachment of children with diverse qualities in all aspects of schooling that other children are capable to access and enjoy comprises regular schools and classrooms frankly adapting and changing to encounter the needs of all children as well as observing and valuing qualities. In paragon system of inclusive education, the universal education itself should make the education of children with special needs as its inherent part. The implied meaning of this is that general educators should be equipped with knowledge and skills to address the learning and other needs of children with special needs with minimum or no assistance from special educators. This demands the requirement of incorporating all those components in the pre-service as well as service training curriculum which are needed to prepare a teacher suitable for inclusive education is commonly intended that education of a child with Special needs in common school is inclusion but it cannot be preserved as total attachment. Total or full inclusion refers to when general school system including teachers take most of the responsibilities for education children with special needs. Need of Quality Teacher Education for Inclusive Education: Supportive Reviews Teacher’s ability plays an essential role in quality education. It is the cognition, impressions and measures of the teacher that are effected in creating an effective learning environment for pupils, making the teacher a vital influence in education for involvement and the development of the school. Favourably disposed teachers toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education classrooms employ more effective instructional strategies than those who hold negative attitudes. Researchers have also found out that there is a positive correlation between supportive attitudes by teachers and enhanced performance by students with disabilities who were included in regular classrooms. Literature indicates that teacher’s actions and performance in classrooms are greatly influenced by their knowledge of the learning characteristics of their students and these have profound impact on learning processes. In a research carried on regular primary and secondary school teachers, it was found that nearly 70% of the regular school teachers had never received training in special education and also not had any experience teaching students with disabilities. They are expected to design, implement and evaluate the educational program based on the students assessed needs and create active and appropriate learning situations through integrative, flexible and interdisciplinary instructional strategies. They would also be required to participate in Individual Education Program meetings and work in partnership with special education teachers; Para-professionals, parents, and other service providers. Therefore, it is evident that the learning in and achievement of learner is highly dependent upon the quality and competence of teachers competent teachers can only be possible when there is quality in pre-service and in-service teacher education. Challenges to Ascertain Quality Teacher Education Teacher education in India has improved its quality. After independence number of initiatives to promote quality teacher education to ensure quality education to one and all. However, it is true that after persistent struggle there is evident improvement, but still there is no end to the perfection. Some of the challenges relating to quality teacher education which are confronting the successful implementation of inclusive education in its true Spirit are highlighted below: Arbitrary Teacher Education Program: There is implementation of arbitrary ideas in teacher education at national level. Why should there be two year B.Ed. for pre-service teachers whereas there is integrated B.Sc./B.Ed. is of four years program and if it. So, then why ascendence is not given to B.Sc. /B.A. and B.Ed. instead of treating B.Sc. /B.A. & B.Ed. and integrated B.A./B.Sc.Ed. Equally? Institutional Phenomenon and Brand Research: Due to the variance of state, society, judiciary and pedagogy there is institutional inertia. Earlier the society was governed by society, and then state started governing the society, now the economy is overarching both the society and state. There is also public private abstraction of the teacher education. Inability of Students and Teachers: The existing training program does not provide adequate opportunities to the student teachers to develop competency because the organizers of teacher’s training program are not responsive of the existing issues of schools. Poor Integration of Humane and Professional Skills among Teachers: The teacher education for preparing humane and professional skilled teachers needs to be holistic. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46423 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 404 Along with content and methodology there is a need to integrate emotional competencies, passion, positive will, self-awareness, social sensitivity, self- management, empathy, interpersonal relationship, critical thinking, understanding of individual difference with regard to needs, ways of learning, and rates of learning, effective communication, problems Solving, decision making, leadership, life skills, techno pedagogic skills, human developmental skills, and Spiritual skills etc. Alienated and Unfitting Modes of Education: There is little conservation amongst various modes of pedagogy, such as distance mode, e-mode, and face to face mode. Distance mode is stretched, e-mode is first phase, and the face to face mode is moribund. There is no network between the several modes of teacher education. Rare Innovation: Innovations may be attributed to many factors. Novel ideas do not develop because of the adverse external situations. There are wide gaps between the dreamers and players. So very often the initiations have short life and weaken in the institutions, where these uprise. Sometime the most innovative programs fail in the formal system due to environment, poor socio- economic status, politics, and rigid policies, legislations, and stipulated boundaries of apex body. Poor Research Premise: Research in education is retroflex and repetitive devoid of impertinence, either of problem or of approach or of methodology. There are more quantitative studies than qualitative. The studies are also scattered and unlinked. There is lack of continuity, intercalary, and synthesis. Most of the studies are eloquent and corrective, what to talk of inculcation, Statistics and psychometrics are overlaying reality. Inadequate Techno-Pedagogy Skills and ICT Literacy: We are in the era of information communication technology. Researchers have raised that tech plays a vital role in bettering the quality and ability of the teacher. It enables teachers to deal with the diverse problems arise in the classroom. Still the advance techno-pedagogical skills have not been included in the teacher education program in a fabric manner in India and as a result, most of the teachers do not have knowledge of the availability, benefits and using strategies of technology in classroom situations. Isolation of Special Education: Very less importance has been given on the subjects and pedagogies of special education in the general teacher education program. As a result the teachers, who have been trained under general teacher education program, often fail to cater the needs of children with special needs in inclusive settings. On the other hand the number of special education institutions is very few and not capable of producing special educators in proportion with the numbers of children with special needs in India. Ample Profile for Inclusive Education in New Era: Teacher for inclusive education in the digital age has to be highly versatile, resourceful, and techno-literate, because the inclusive class may be composed of audio impaired, visually challenged, deaf and dumb, and children with learning disabilities or intellectual disabilities, etc. Problems in Perform Teaching: Revolutionize of all kinds of expand arrangements regarding practice in teaching, student teachers are non-serious to the task of teaching, deficient in sense of duty irresponsible, vagrant, indifferent to children, missing innovative measure in teaching which are big obstacles in the growth of pedagogical abilities. Other Challenges Selection problem, Insufficient financial grants, Stake holder non-alignment, Domain-pedagogy mismatches, No teacher education policy, Lack of culture-specific pedagogy, Problem of supervision of teaching, Narrow scope of teacher education, Little contribution to higher education, Deficient in facilities for pupil-teacher, Segregation of teacher education departments, Lack of facilities for professional development Poor academic background of student-teachers, Open education sources are fully not functional, Rare involvement of multi-disciplinary professional, Rigid and narrow curriculum in Teacher education program, Constructivist approaches in education with Rare expression in ICT. Probable Solutions For improving the quality of teacher education in order to confirm proper implementation of inclusive International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD46423 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 405 education will ensure development of the individual, the following Solutions are proposed – Incorporating special education in curriculum of general B.Ed., Developing teacher education policy in India, Appropriate methodology in teaching, Internship in place of practice teaching, Transferring special education under MHRD, Introducing universal design of learning, Research in educational technology, ICT and historical, economical and philosophical foundations, Sufficient funding for need of the existing education Systemfor Student teachers, Proper selection of teachers for training with adequacy in numbers, Innovating most efficient teacher education Programs, Formation of Association for Subject teachers and multidisciplinary professionals, Addressing challenges of the present times developing multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi- level, and multi- national teacher education, Introducing course on digital technology and assistive technology, MOU between technology agencies and apex educational institutions, Advancement of infrastructure and learning materials, Focus on comprehensive teacher education program, Priorities and motivating teacher for in-service education, Curriculum improvement in teacher education through research, School and workshop based practice in distance teacher training, Inter link between both general and special B.Ed. and M.Ed. course, Partnering teacher education with School sector for promotion of quality assurance, Establishment of proper network and collaboration between RCI and NCTE, Organization and management of a decentralized distance teacher education program. Conclusion The teacher is the spindle of the complete system of educational and is the fundamental agent in occurrence of desirable changes in the whole teaching learning process, all efforts need be made to justify the teacher education programme so that it can gift us the quality and the teachers being capable of meeting the multi needs of each and every students not overlooking their abilities but disabilities in an inclusive environment. They cause system and pupils to be motivated to become dynamic, intellect, optimist, for innovative and creative aura ahead. It is a proven fact that self-motivated and really industrious teacher can utilize his own resources to keep himself abreast of new knowledge and skills and teachers with intellect known about various disciplines show positive perspective towards students. Teacher education program should be created and adorned on the findings for and of researches in their area. Content, pedagogy, and technology are to be integrated. 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