A b s t r a c t. Physical properties are often required for
designing post harvest handling/processing equipment
agricultural products. Bergamot is a species of citrus fruit. Physical
properties of bergamot are necessary for equipment used in
activities such as transportation, storage, grading, packing, and in
food production processes like drying, jam production and so on. In
this study some physical properties of bergamot were determined.
Properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass,
volume, projected area, fruit density, shell ratio, geometric mean
diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and
also packing coefficient were measured for three groups of small,
medium and large category of bergamots. Experiments were
carried out at moisture content of 84.9% w.b. for bergamot shell
and 87.34% w.b. for its meat. Result showed that average mass and
volume were 291.9 g and 456.83 cm3, respectively. Dimensions
increased from 78.7 to 160 mm in length, 64.2 to 128.5 mm in
width, and 64 to 125 mm in thickness. The mean projected area
perpendicular to length, width, and thickness obtained 7063.61,
7933.39 and 8137.77 mm2, respectively. The geometric mean
diameter and surface area were calculated as 97.02 mm, 30412.31
mm2, respectively, while sphericity and shell ratio (w.b.) were
measured at 0.89 and 0.62%, respectively.
K e y w o r d s: bergamot, citrus, physical properties
Iran has an annual production level of 3.5 mln t of citrus
fruit and was ranked 22nd producer in the world (Khoja-
The Bergamot (Citrus medica) is a species of citrus
fruit. Its tree is called citrus bergamia. Bergamia is an ever-
green tree (like other trees of this family) and slow-growing.
Bergamia begins to bear fruit when it is around three years old.
Bergamot is characterized by its thick rind and small
sections. Its skin is thick, somewhat hard, fragrant, and
covered with protuberances; the pulp is white and subacid.
Bergamot fruit consists of flevedo (protuberances), albedo