GEOGRAPHY AS A DISCIPLINE
This unit deals with
• Geography as an integrating discipline; as a science of spatial
• Branches of geography; importance of physical geography
You have studied geography as one of the
components of your social studies course
upto the secondary stage. You are
already aware of some of the phenomena of
geographical nature in the world and its
different parts. Now, you will study ‘Geography’
as an independent subject and learn about the
physical environment of the earth, human
activities and their interactive relationships.
Therefore, a pertinent question you can ask at
this stage is — Why should we study
geography? We live on the surface of the earth.
Our lives are affected by our surroundings in
many ways. We depend on the resources to
sustain ourselves in the surrounding areas.
Primitive societies subsisted on ‘natural means
of subsistence’, i.e. edible plants and animals.
With the passage of time, we developed
technologies and started producing our food
using natural resources such as land, soil and
water. We adjusted our food habits and
clothing according to the prevailing weather
conditions. There are variations in the natural
resource base, technological development,
adaptation with and modification of physical
environment, social organisations and cultural
development. As a student of geography, you
should be curious to know about all the
phenomena which vary over space. You learn
about the diverse lands and people. You
should also be interested in understanding the
changes which have taken place over time.
Geography equips you to appreciate diversity
and investigate into the causes responsible for
creating such variations over time and space.
You will develop skills to understand the globe
converted into maps and have a visual sense
of the earth’s surface. The understanding and
the skills obtained in modern scientific
techniques such as GIS and computer
cartography equip you to meaningfully
contribute to the national endeavour for
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