ANTENNAS APPLICATIONS FOR RF MODULE
There seems to be little information on compact antenna design for the low power wireless field. Good antenna
design is required to realize good range performance. A good antenna requires it to be the right type for the
application. It also must be matched and tuned to the transmitter and receiver. To get the best results, a designer
should have an idea about how the antenna works, and what the important design considerations are. This paper
should help to achieve effective antenna design.
Wavelength - Important for determination of antenna length, this is the distance that the radio wave
travels during one complete cycle of the wave. This length is inversely proportional to
the frequency and may be calculated by: wavelength in cm = 30,000 / frequency in MHz.
Groundplane - A solid conductive area that is an important part of RF design techniques. These are
usually used in transmitter and receiver circuits. An example is where most of the
traces will be routed on the topside of the board, and the bottom will be a mostly solid
copper area. The groundplane helps to reduce stray reactances and radiation. Of course,
the antenna line needs to run away from the groundplane.
dB (decibel) - A logarithmic scale used to show power gain or loss in an RF circuit. +3 dB is twice the
power, while -3 dB is one half. It takes 6 dB to double or halve the radiating distance,
due to the inverse square law.
The Basic Antenna and how it Works.
An antenna can be defined as any wire, or conductor, that carries a pulsing or alternating current. Such a current
will generate an electromagnetic field around the wire and that field will pulse and vary as the electric current
does. If another wire is placed nearby, the electromagnetic field lines that cross this wire will induce an electric
current that is a copy of the original current, only weaker. If the wire is relatively long, in terms of wavelength,
it will radiate much of that field over lon