Volume 4 Issue 5
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 5 Issue 4, May-June 2021 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42368 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 733 Attachment Security and Perceived Parental Psychological Control as Parameters of Social Value Orientation among Early Adolescents Nweke, Kingsley Onyibor PhD1; Dike Ibiwari Caroline PhD 2; Dike, Adannia Amarachukwu1; Umeaku Ndubuisi Nkemakonam1 1Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria 2Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria ABSTRACT The study examined attachment security and perceived parental psychological control as parameters of social value orientation among early adolescents. Participants for the study were 210 early adolescents who volunteered from NnamdiAzikiwe University High Awka. Participants’ age ranged from 11 to 15 years, with mean age of 13.26 years and standard deviation of 1.34. Three instruments were deployed for data collection: secure domain of the attachment style questionnaire (SDASQ) by Van Oudenhoven, Hofstra, & Bakker (2003), adopted version of psychological control domain of the parental control scale developed by Barber (1996) and social value orientation (SVO) developed by Schwartz (1994). The study adopted correlation design and statistics appropriate for data analysis were correlation and multiple regression analysis enter method. Hypothesis one was confirmed and result showed that attachment security significantly and positively predicted social value orientation at B = .73**, P<. 001. Hypothesis two result was not confirmed at B = -.06, p> .05. Hence, attachment security is a significant predictor of social value orientation. It was recommended that parents, teachers and care-givers should ensure that they establish low anxiety type of relationship with their new born children in order to enhance low anxiety and low avoidance as this will help them at early adolescents to withstand peer pressure of during early adolescent. KEYWORDS: Attachment security, perceived parental psychological control, social value orientation, early adolescents How to cite this paper: Nweke, Kingsley Onyibor | Dike Ibiwari Caroline | Dike, Adannia Amarachukwu | Umeaku Ndubuisi Nkemakonam "Attachment Security and Perceived Parental Psychological Control as Parameters of Social Value Orientation among Early Adolescents" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-5 | Issue-4, June 2021, pp.733-739, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd42368.pdf Copyright © 2021 by author (s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) INTRODUCTION In the contemporary society in which we live, it has become a regular occurrence in the home as well as in school that most often parents and teachers witness situations that bother on aggression and sometimes very little display of elements of kindness manifested by children from various ages of development. Sometime, it baffles us that some of these behaviors manifested by school children are hurtful which sometimes lead to loss of life. Wondering why these behaviors occur becomes a major concern for parents, religious mentors, as well as teacher and even the society at large. Since children are born in the world with empty slates in terms of aggressive or prosocial behavior templates, it becomes necessary that aggressive behaviors may be aligned to failure or lack of parental or care-giver role in various stages of child development. Perhaps this is the reason why blames go to parents when behaviors appear to contradict norm of a society. Since norms are rules or expectations that are socially enforced, roles of parents and care-givers appear highly indispensable. According to developmental psychologists, until age twelve parents are held accountable for development of a child’s behavior. This may be possible it is basically at this point that growing child faces strong challenges from peer pressure which in turn may moderate the growing child into adult personalities traits: such as pro- social or aggressive and selfish adults. Once a growing child begins to attend school and gets exposed to teachers, and peer groups, parental influence comes under some scrutiny either for the child to adopt and practice the values inculcated by early care-givers (parents) or alternatively to welcome a new influence from peers and significant others. Similarly, other sources of influence at the early adolescent stage are religious mentors, teachers, peers and ore recently the social media. More recently, is the influence of social media. It is important to note that the stage of adolescence is a challenging one in which a growing child witnesses lot of changes in the body. Regrettably, most of these growths and development are usually accompanied with necessary maturity. Such a state of delayed maturity may give the young adolescent wrong impression of perceiving self as an adult. In the state, adolescents’ perception may tend to engage in behaviors that are not norm compliant. Non-norm approved behavior practiced over time may lead to behaviors that tilts towards selfishness and self-centeredness. In the wake of this IJTSRD42368 International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42368 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 734 new challenge, the researchers in the study are motivated to explore the role of attachment security, and perceived parental psychological control on social value orientation among early adolescents. If the goal of Psychology is to achieve mental health for all and a peaceful society where we live, the study is rather of essence and great importance to everyone. More than five decades ago, the field of Social and evolutionary Psychology have been engrossed with studies in the area of social value orientation. Plethora of scholars have initiated various definitions of social value orientation, for instance, Moon, Weick&Uskul, (2017) define social value orientation as the general technology towards competitive (pro-self) and cooperative (pro-social) in social exchange. According to Moon et al (2017) in human relationship, behaviors portray two major areas of social interaction: pro- self or pro-social. Both pro-self and pro-social may be construed to social value orientation which may be reflection of culture where each person comes from. Likewise Van Lange (2000) define social valued orientation as a key interpersonal orientation that drives individual’s mode of social interaction. In Van Langer (2000) opinion, being pro- self or pro-self is the motive for engaging in social interaction. While other scholars define social value orientation as the value that individuals place on the outcomes of other people including strangers (Van Lange, De Bruin, Often &Joireman, 1997), stable preferences for certain patterns of outcomes for one self and others (McClintock, 1978). In the context of the present study, social value orientation a blue print of one’s personal disposition which determines his social interaction either for the benefit of self or others. Earlier scholars hold that social value orientation is grounded in the interdependency theory which refers to individualism or cooperation in social exchange (Kelly &Thibaut, 1978). Social value orientation scholars argue that social value orientation may be key concept that shape individuals behavior and attitude across a broad array of different settings, including decision making, cooperation, charity giving, problem solving procedural justice and political ideologies (Naute et al, 2002). According to Van Lange (1997), there are three category typology of social value orientation: pro-social, individualistic, and competitive orientation. Pro-social tends to maximize outcomes for both themselves and others (ie cooperation) and minimize differences between outcomes for themselves and others (ie equality), individualistic tends to maximize their own outcomes with little or no regard for others outcome, and competitive tend to maximize their own outcome relative to others outcome, by seeking relative advantage over others (Van Lange, 1997; Van Lange & Kuhlman, 1994). It was observed that pros-social, individualistic and competitive orientations are particularly rooted in different patterns of social interaction as experienced during the periods spanning early childhood to young adulthood (Van Lange et al 1997). Thus, these three types of orientations appear to be modified as a child grows and develops. Such transformational tendencies may be further shaped by patterns of social interaction as one experiences throughout lifetime, from early adulthood to old age (Erickson, 1980). It was observed that these experiences that shape patterns of social interaction are pivotal in developing adolescent’s personal, social, and cultural lives which significantly impact relationships, identity, well-being and life prospects across time and place (Von &Sisler, 2016). Since social value orientation is subject to transformation during life time, it may possible to modify personality characteristic of the individual. Now these changes that emerge with development as a child grows seems to relate with patterns of social interaction and culture of the society. Scholars hold that social value orientation is developed from homes through socialization of the new child between 9 and 11 year-old (Li, Zhu, Gummerum& Sun, 2013). The development of social value orientation may have started earlier than the formation period of 9 to 11 years. This may be because, parents start from day one to inculcate such values in the new child on daily bases. As a result the child becomes conversant with the demands of such values which may not necessarily be moral but core interpersonal skill or norms in human relationship. Such trainings may tilt toward cooperative, individualistic or competitive. The important aspects of these trainings are that they have implications in the child later development and personality characteristics. Benefits of social value orientation have been reported to include: increase cooperation in times of social dilemma and expectation,(Luca, Daniel, Kuhlman, Michael, Vollpel, Lange & Paul, 2018), and expression of what is good, norm activation, and desirable norm of the society; sacrifice (McClintock & Allison, 1989). Furthermore, social value orientations are predictive of helping behavior, judgment of everyday life incidents of cooperation and competition, decisions and judgment regarding commuting choices, and willingness to sacrifice in close relationships (Van Lange, 1995; McClintock & Allison, 1989), community connectedness, widespread harmony, greater life satisfaction, well-being, and pro- sociality (Kasser, 2002; Maio, Pakizeh, Cheung, & Rees, 2009; Kasser, 2011), hubs for emotions and preferences influenced by social-cultural milieus (Suh, Diener, Oishi&Triandis, 1998), and allows us to answer questions on societal stability or changes in insecurity (Trommsdorff,1992). Studies reveal association between attachment style and adolescence values in different contexts (Innamorati, Parolin, Tagini, Serracino, et al (2018). Attachment theory was originally conceptualized as a developmental model in which relationships processes unfold across a person’s life span, influencing us from the cradle to the grave (Bowl by, 1969/1982). According to Cassidy & shaver, (2008) there are many important links between attachment, cognition, emotion and behavior. According to evolutionary psychologists, early adolescent seems to be a stage that comes with numerous challenges which lead to adaptation and survival. As a result of importance of attachment style, relationship with parents, family members, and significant important others, social value orientation appears to take a stable place in an early adolescents life and future personality characteristics. Consequently scholars hold that close intimate relationship are thought to be rooted in an attachment system that help to solve basic evolutionary pressures related to survival, care giving and procreation (Beckees&Coan, 2011). In the attachment theory, the central point is the extent of proximity between care-giver and infants. Thus, the closeness between care-giver and the child makes it imperative for the influence from the care-giver to the infant very remarkable. Infants manifest the closeness to care-givers through behaviors like crying, and clanging (Izerman&Danissen, 2019). Scholars hold that adolescents form basis with others throughout their lives (Batholomew&Horrowits, 1991). This basis formed by adolescents appear to be a blue print that they fall back to in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42368 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 735 future relationship with others. Such relationships may be emotional, career, business, and most social behaviors that may reveal self and pro-self. Also, keeping relationship may be related to type of attachment style. It was observed that attachment theory constitutes a potential framework for explaining social value orientation (Innamorati, Parolin, Taginu, et al 2018). Furthermore studies in social psychology have devoted an impressive live of research to individual differences in social value orientation, which is a continuum that describes inclination of some people to give interdependent others the benefit of the doubt and approach them cooperatively whereas other people are inclined to approach interdependent others in less cooperative manner (Kuhlnnan&Marshello, 1975, Van Lange, 1999). According to Hanam& Shaver (1987) attachment style has been measured using both categorical and dimensional approach. The categorical approach assumes the existence of three distinct prototypes of attachment: secure, avoidance and anxious –ambivalent and modern dimensional approaches which treat attachment style as consisting of two underlying dimensions: anxiety and avoidance. Therefore, attachment security is derived from modern dimensional approach, in the modern dimensional approach there are two main concepts: Avoidance and anxiety. Therefore, the security aspect does not imply another domain of but a low level of the avoidance and anxiety (Ijzerman&Danissen, 2019). Scholars reported that having a responsive and reliable care-giver (or not) causes greater (or lesser) confidence in others, which forms basis for how people interact in later life (Fraley, Heffernan, Vicary&Brumbaugh, 2011). Consequently, types of attachment styles has been reported in individual difference studies in recent studies (Ijzerman&Dnission, 2019). Other studies reveal that attachment security is moderately associated with diverse measures of parental monitoring, negative expression of emotions and directly anger (Scott, Briskman, Woolgar, Humayum&O’connor, 2011). Scholars report that parental psychological control and attachment security are negatively related but both predict self-esteem (Leondari&Kiosseoglou, 2002). Pettit, Bates, Dodge &Meece, (1999) define perceived parental psychological control as a type of parental control which makes the child dependent on his parents emotionally, inhibits the child’s independence and self-direction ability. According to Maccoby and Martin (1983) parental control has been identified as a salient dimension of parenting associated with youth’s social, emotional and psychological development. Most research on parental control focus on parents, defining and delineating the effects of control as a function of parent’s goals and intention (Barber et al, 1994). However, in the present study, the researchers are concerned with the degree of psychological aspects of the parental control among early adolescent. According to Kerr and Slattin (2003), the effect of parental control on adolescent development have taken a sociological dimension. Barber, (1996) posit that parental control can be divided into two distinct types: psychological and behavioral control. Accordingly, psychological aims at emotional aspect that attempts to control adolescent’s behavior through restrictions of psychological benefits. Parental psychological control is one which makes the adolescent depends on his parents emotionally, inhabits the adolescent independence and self-directional (Pettit, Bates, Dodere&Meece, 1999). Scholars reported that psychological control is associated with development of insecure ties between parents and child (DoylexMarkieyicz, 2005; Kurth, Sayil&Kindap, 2013). Similarly, parental psychological control has been reported as a predictor of internal (worry, anxiety, depression, isolation, low self-esteem, and external problems, aggression, anti- social behavior, and getting in crime (Babber& Harmon, 2002; Kurt, et al, 2013). According to Babber (1996), parental psychological control among individualist culture involve including anxiety or guilty shaming or withdrawal of love to modify child behavior is perceived as an intrusion upon the child’s sense of self and individuation as it undermines the child’s attainment of self-reliance, self-expression and emotional autonomy. Meanwhile, in collectives culture of China, parental psychological control functions as one of the socialization avenues through which children acquire and internalize the request for self-control to adhere to behavioral and social expectations in all social contexts (Markus &Kitayama, 1991). Therefore, perceived parental psychological control, appear to be a concept that may likely be modified by culture. Yet some studies submit that perceived parental psychological control has often been linked to lower wellbeing in children, such as depression, anxiety and externalizing problems in western samples (Perfit et al, 2000, Barber et al, 1994). However, behavioral control appears physical and may include use of corporal punishment in showing adolescents appropriate behavior and limit if and when necessary (Barbber& Harmon, 2002). Finally, attachment security seems to be the bedrock of human interaction from birth to death. Yet, there appears to be dearth of knowledge in social value orientation among participants in the present sample. Similarly, perceived parental psychological control appears to have been duly examined among participants in western and Chinese cultures but results have grossly been inconsistent. Therefore, the present researchers believe that the study would reveal the relationship attachment security and perceived parental psychological control on social value orientation among early adolescents. In a study reported by Innomorati, Parolin, Tagini et al (2018) on “Attachment, social value orientation, sensation seeking and bullying in the early adolescent. The study examined bullying in the light of professional security hypothesis. That is the hypothesis that insecure attachment with temperamental disposition such as sensation seeking may foster individualistic competitive value orientations and problem behavior. participant were 375 Italian students, female 53%, mean age 12.58 years, male 53%, mean age 12.58 years and standard deviation of 1.08 path analysis results show that attachment to mother was negatively associated with bullying of others both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values while attachment to father was directly associated with victimization. Adolescent gender affected how attachment moderated the relationship between sensation seeking and problem behavior. Earlier in a related study by Leenders, Bunk and Henkens (2017) on the role of the relationship with parents with respect to work orientation and work ethic. Data for the study was drawn from 3841respondents from Netherlands kinship panel study (wave 2). Results shows that overall, people with a more positive work orientation and a stronger work orientation and a stronger work ethic have positive relationship with a father had greater influence on the work aspects. The two works focused on different aspects International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42368 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 736 of adolescent’s life. Innomorati et al 2018 was more concerned with relationship between father and mother and manifestation of aggressive behaviors, while Leender et al 2017 was concerned with adolescent’s development of work ethics. Similarly, Hapunda, Mesurado, Verma, et al, (2019) examined cultural variability and consistency in adolescent emotional regulation and relationship with their parents. Data was drawn from Argentina, Ghana, India and Zambia. Results reveal that there were cultural differences in the way adolescent perceive their relationship with parents. The various studies empirically examined reveal the importance of parental perception by adolescent and antecedent manifestation of behavior either on the acceptable norm or the contrarily (Innomorati et al; 2018 and Leenders et al; 2019). Similarly, Hapunda et al in a cross cultural study of over five nations pointed out that culture was also an important aspect of attachment security.In a study by Barmi&Knafo (2020) which examined if value system of fathers, mothers and adolescent do construct basic values in the same way? Participants for the study were 381 Italian family tryads (Father, mother and one adolescent child). Multiple sealing analysis results revealed that parents and adolescent distinguished a similar numbers of value dimensions. Perhaps, such similarity could be as a result perceived parental psychological control.In a related study by Cetinkaya (2018) the study examined the relationship between perceived parental control and internet addiction, a cross-sectional study among adolescent”. Participants for the study were 356 (male, 151, female 205) adolescents. Correlation and regression analysis results show positive and significant medium-level relationship, between perceived parental control and adolescents, internet addiction. This study appears to be quite similar with works by Barmi&Knafo (2020). For instance both refer to the positive effect of perceived parental control on adolescent’s behavior manifestation. Therefore, adolescents with perceived parental control may have difficulty in manifesting unwanted behaviors. Earlier scholars focused on attachment, social value orientation, sensation seeking adolescent bullying (Innomarati et al 2018), role of having relationship with parents with respect to work orientation and work ethics (Leenders et al 2017). Similarly, Cetinkaya, (2018) examined relationship between perceived parental psychological control and adolescent’s internet addiction. Hapunda et al; (2019) examined cultural versatility and construction in adolescent’s emotional regulation. While others focused on dimensions of value system of parents and adolescents (Barmi&Knafo, 2020). It appears that no work to the best of researchers’ knowledge had examined attachment securities and perceived parental psychological control as parameters of the social value orientation among early adolescents. Theoretical Framework In the face of the present investigators on attachment security and perceived parental psychological control as parameters of adolescent social value orientation, the attachment theory is deployed as the theoretical framework. The attachment theory was developed by Bowby (1969). According to Ainsworth (1973), and Bowby (1969) attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space. Attachment may not have to be mutual. Bowlby (1969) developed the attachment theory in studies between mothers and infants the relationship between mothers and infants was referred to as attachment style which is the degree of security an individual feels in interpersonal relationships according to the theory, an infant acquires two basic attitudes: during its earliest interaction with an adult, self and attitude about others. Accordingly, security means lower levels of either anxiety or avoidance. Thus, attitude about self refers to self-esteem, which is developed from behavior and the emotional reactions of the caregiver which provide information to the infant that he or she is valued, important, and loved. According to scholars, one of the hallmarks of the attachment theory is that having a responsive and reliable care (or not) causes greater (or less) confidence in others forming the basis for how people interact later in life (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991; Fraley, et al 2011). In relation with the present variables of study, attachment security is enshrined in the attachment theory of the responsiveness of parents on how they attend to needs of adolescents. Also, perceived parental control emphasizes the role or degree of involvement of parent in a psychological manner which enhances self-esteem of their adolescent children. This aspect is also enshrined in the attachment theory during early years of interaction between the infant and the care-giver. During the early years the infant learns interpersonal trust, thereby relying on the care-giver for emotional support. The relationship between the care-giver and the infant, and development of trust places the care-giver in a position of applying some level of control on the infant. At this point, control may either be psychological or behavioral (Sayil&Kindap 2010; Steinberg, 1990). Therefore, attachment security, perceived parental psychological control and the social value orientation are enshrined in the attachment style theory. Hypotheses 1. Attachment security will positively and significantly predict adolescent’s social value orientation among adolescents. 2. Perceived parental psychological control will positively and significantly predict adolescent’s social value orientation among adolescents. METHOD PARTICIPANTS The study examined attachment style and parental psychological control on social value orientation among adolescents in NnamdiAzikiwe University Awka, Anambra State Nigeria. Participants in the study were 210 adolescents who were randomly selected from Senior secondary 1 -3. The classes were randomly selected using a simple random sampling (deep pick). The participants were made up of (38.1%) males and (61.9%) females with age range 11 years to 15 years, mean 13.26 years and standard deviation 1.34. Instruments Three instruments were used for data collection: secure domain of the attachment style questionnaire (SDASQ) by Van Oudenhoven, Hofstra, & Bakker (2003), adopted version of psychological control domain of the parental control scale developed by Barber (1996) and social value orientation (SVO) was developed by Schwartz (1994). The secure domain of the Attachment style Questionnaire (ASQ) has 8 items each and are scored on a five point Likert format. Items 3, 7 & 15 are reversed scored. Attachment style questionnaire has four domains; secure attachment style, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing attachment styles. Van Oudenhoven et al (2003) reported an internal validity of above .60 alpha coefficient. Lower values of the attachment security questionnaire International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42368 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 737 correlated significantly positively with Rosenberge Self- esteem scale (Rosenberge, 1965). Psychological Control domain of parental control scale has 5 items, item 1 measures invalidating feeling dimensions, items 2 and 3 measure personal attachment dimension, while 4 and 5 measures love withdrawal dimension. However, verbal hostility and corporal punishment dimensions are other domains of the parental control dimension. PCD is an 11 items scale Baber (1996) reported alpha coefficient of .84. Correlation between parental psychological control and Self rating depression scale by Zung, (1965) yielded .65. Schwartz value scale was used to measure social value orientation scale (SVOS), the SVOS contains 56 items, which tap 10 different values. The SVS has 7 point Likert format 1 to7 (-1= opposed to my values o= not important and 7=supremely important according to Schwarz (1994) all values collapse into 10 latent values. Convergent validity between social value orientation and life satisfaction scale by Neugarten, Havighurst& Tobi (1961) yielded .62. Procedure The topic was approved by my supervisor and the required identification was issued to the researcher to enable her access the institution were the research was carried out. The instrument for each participant to sign a consent form before completing them. Three different levels were selected based on the age of the adolescents (11-15 years). These levels were senior secondary 1 to senior secondary 3. Thereafter, each from each of the levels there are three sub levels, one sub level was randomly selected from the three levels. Participants whose ages fell into 11 to 15 years and who were willing to participate were given the opportunity to participate. The method of administration was incidental random sampling. The questionnaire administration took place within the break time. A minimum of 7 minutes was given to each participant to fill the form. Four research assistants were employed to help the researcher in administering the questionnaires to the participants. On completion, the questionnaires were collected immediately. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered. However, only 210 properly filled, collated and were used for data analysis. Design and Statistics The design of the study was correction design. The statistics utilized for data management was correlation and multiple regression analysis and SPSS version 22.0 was deployed for data analysis. RESULT This chapter deals with the results of data analysis. The order of result presentation are as follows Table 1: Zero order correlation coefficient, and table 2: Standardize Beta Coefficient result for social value orientation, attachment security and parental psychological control. Zero order correlation Matrix using Raw Data 1 2 3 1. SocialValue Orientation 1 2. Attachment Security .000** 1 3. Perceived Parental Psychological Control .002** .003** 1 Correlation is significant at the .001 level (2 tailed) Table 1 shows the zero order correlation of the studied variables. There was a significant positive correlation between attachment security and social value orientation at r = .000**, p< .05. The correlation between perceived parental psychological control and social value orientation was positive and significant at r = .002**, P< .001, while correlation between attachment security and perceived parental psychological control was positive and significant at r = .003**, p< .001. Table 2: Standardized Beta Coefficient results for independent effects of attachment security and parental psychological control on social value orientation. Adjusted R2 Df1 F B Std Error .557 2 132.18 1. Attachment security .734** .104 2. Perceived parental psychological control -.063 .061 One model was analyzed independently using multiple regression enter method. Thereafter the following outcomes were obtained. Model 1 (Hypothesis one) in Table 2 showed that when Enter method was applied to Social Value orientation for the two independent predictors (attachment security and perceived parental psychological control), the adjusted R squared = .557. This means that the model contributes 55.7% in understanding of social value orientation. The ANOVA summary (F-Ratio) shows that the adjusted R squared value was at F (2, 207) = 132.18, p < .001. Specifically, the unstandardized beta values for each of the predictor factors were attachment security B = 1.64**, p< .001, and perceived parental psychological control is B = -.08, p > .001. SUMMARY OF RESULT 1. Attachment security positively and significantly predicted social value orientation among adolescents in NnamdiAzikiwe University Awka. 2. Perceived parental psychological control did not positively and significantly predict social value orientation among adolescents in NnamdiAzikiwe University High school Awka. DISCUSSION The study examined attachment security and perceived parental psychological control on social value orientation among early adolescents of NnamdiAzikiwe University High School, Awka. The finding of association between attachment security and social value orientation is consistent with earlier works (Innomorati, et al; 2020; Leenders et al; 2017; Hapunda et al 2019). The study reveals that participants in the present study appears to have low levels of anxiety and stress as they relate with their parents control behavior. The theoretical explanation to this finding may be found in the attachment theory by Bowlby (1969). According to the attachment theory, early adolescents who engage in relation with parents that is characterized by low anxiety and low stress may have attachment security. For instance, when parents are motivated to carry out their parental obligations on their children, to an extent, some usually apply aggression, and use of undue force. As this happens, the growing child begins to develop resentment about the parents. Sooner or later while growing the child may begin to develop some degree of anxiety. The anxiety may manifest in terms of fear, some discomfort and withdrawal from parents. As this International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD42368 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 4 | May-June 2021 Page 738 Avoidance continues, the child begins to develop some degrees of heightened anxiety. Now the child begins to realize that he may not get the comfort, acceptance and approval of the parents in future events. To an extent, this may lead to development of insecure attachment style. However, when a child finds acceptance in the home with the parents, s/he becomes relaxed emotionally and is not under any kind of pressure. This state of mind may make the growing child report easiness in engaging in any discourse with parents or care-giver. Now the child begins to feel low anxiety and low stress. At this point such a child may report attachment security. The important aspect of this feeling is that early adolescents may hold unto training received for parent and care-givers from birth to adulthood. It is assumed that in the state of low pressure and anxiety, children may be able to make informed reasoning. It appears that most of the time those children who realize that parents and care-givers create a state of mutual communication pattern confront peer related challenges with self-will to resist change in attitudes. This means that most of the parental attitudes are adopted by them as part of their own. Now as the adolescents begin to interact with socialization agents outside their domain, they become individuals that are already willing and ready to face the world for a positive change. On the contrary, perhaps those children who do not report low levels of anxiety and stress may accept changes from external agents just to get out the state of fear and sadness that parental attachment illicit. Evolutionary Psychologists argue that such behavior are necessary for adaptation and survival. This may be because the early adolescent perceive the world as competitive. Such state may motivate the need to develop aggressive tendencies and subsequent anti-social behaviors in later adulthood. The various stages of attachment pattern may be the basis of human personality formation. Once personality is formed, it may be hard to change it in later life. According to developmental psychologists, personality and traits are usually formed between ages 11 to 15 years. This makes the early adolescents stage of development a very critical stage. However, it is hoped that with exposure to model with appropriate behavior, early adolescent may be able to continue with values and norms from parents. The result of the second hypothesis was not confirmed with earlier work on perceived parental psychological control on social value orientation (Barmi& 2020; Cetinkaya, 2018). Therefore, the finding of the present work suggest that in this study, parents form the study did not apply psychological control. Earlier works reveal that psychological was very common among cultures of America and the west. These cultures especially, American appeal to the psychology of the child in order to discharge control on what they wish the child to do. Some of these behaviors deployed by parents include, withdrawal of love, hugs, kisses, and avoidance of closeness. Although, in this pattern, parents achieve some level of control on their children. However, scholars report that it makes children weak and dependent on their parents for support in future. Now these patterns of affection manifestation may not be common to the present culture. Therefore, psychological control may not be a component aspect of our present culture. As such, it could be a reason why the result of the hypothesis was not significant. This result may also suggest that parents in this culture may have been in the habit of behavioral control. For instance, behavioral control has to do with beating and punishment in control unwanted behavior among children. However, in the theoretical explanation of the result according to attachment theory by Bowlby. As the care giver is being relied on for both emotional and physical support, he carries out this duty in different methods. While some are caring which means applying less aggressive measures others are applying aggressive measure. Aggressive approach may be likened to behavioral, while none aggressive approach is psychological control. In the these processes, the behavioral uses force, beating and every means necessary to make sure the child conforms to norm accepted behaviors. The feelings of the child may not be accepted in this process. All the care giver wishes to achieve is norm accepted behaviors. In the end, the child learns to accept parental control as a condition to belonging to a group or society. Now, the child grows up to accept things the way it is. Perhaps, this is the focus of culture, ethnic, values, religion and language. Now, the grown young adult does not have to wait for adults to tell him what is expected of him or anyone. However, consistently scholars hold that psychological and non-aggressive approach makes the young child very dependent of on their parent. Recommendation It was recommended that parents and care-givers of new borns should from day one engage in a type of relationship in which the care-receiver perceives the parents or caregiver as friendly. This state will reduce rear and anxiety which are components of attachment security. It was found in this study that early adolescents who have such perception usually withstand pressures from peers in challenges to early social orientation values inculcated by parents and care-givers. 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