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APA Citation Style
This guide provides a basic introduction to the APA citation style. It is based on the 5th edition of the Publication
Manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2001.
Copies are available at the Vanier Library Reference Desk, in the Webster Library Reference Collection and on
3-hour Reserve (at both libraries). The call number for the handbook is BF 76.7 A46 2001.
The Publication Manual is generally used for academic writing in the social sciences. The manual itself covers
many aspects of research writing including selecting a topic, evaluating sources, taking notes, plagiarism, the
mechanics of writing, the format of the research paper as well as the way to cite sources.
This guide provides basic explanations and examples for the most common types of citations used by students.
For additional information and examples, refer to the Publication Manual.
Direct quotations of sources
Direct quotations allow you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in
that source you found the information. The reader can then follow up on the complete reference in the Reference
List page at the end of your paper.
Quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated in the text and enclosed with double quotation
marks. Provide the author, publication year and a page number.
She stated, "The ‘placebo effect,' ...disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Miele,
1993, p. 276), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.
Miele (1993) found that "the ‘placebo effect,' which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared
when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in this manner" (p. 276).
When making a quotation of more than 40 words, use a free-standing "block quotation" on a new line,
indented five spaces and omit quotation marks.
Miele (1993) found the following:
The "placebo effect," which had been verified in pre