NONLINEAR FINITE ANALYSIS OF THE CROSSHEAD OF
CADANGAN PROJEK JALAN LINGKARAN II: PAKEJ 11-
Dr. Riadh Al-Mahaidi
Significant cracking has occurred in the crossheads during the construction phase (Stage 2A) of
Projek Jalan Lingkaran II : Pakej 11 – Viaduct. Non-linear finite element analysis was carried
out to investigate the short-term structural behaviour of the crossheads under construction loading
and subsequent in-service loading, as well as to determine the final ultimate load capacity.
A three-dimensional FE model was developed for the crosshead. Eight-node isoparametric solid
brick elements were used to model the concrete, while embedded reinforcements were used to
model steel reinforcement. Cracking was introduced into the model with the Smeared Cracking
The analysis took into consideration the following:
Non-linear behaviour of concrete.
Yielding of steel reinforcement (if it occurs).
Concrete cracking with tension softening.
Results are reported for the following:
Stress and strain development in steel reinforcement.
Cracking patterns in the concrete.
Stress and strain contours in the concrete and steel reinforcement.
Deflected shape under the final loading case (In-Service Phase 2).
The following assumptions were made:
Nominal design values for concrete strength and steel reinforcement yield stress were used in
Full bonding was assumed between concrete and steel reinforcement
Creep and shrinkage effects were not considered.
The concrete properties were determined using CEB-FIP901.
It was determined from the analysis that a combination of flexural, shear and torsional cracking
occurs in the loaded cross head during the construction phase - stage 2A (first deck). Further
significant flexural and torsional cracks developed subsequently in the final in-service loading
phase for both sides of the c