Structured Query Language
• SQL is a database computer language designed for the retrieval and
management of data in relational database. SQL stands for
Structured Query Language.
• SQL- Structured Query Language is a special-purpose programming
language designed for managing data held in a relational database
management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a
relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
• SQL is used to communicate with a database. According to ANSI
(American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language
for relational database management systems.
• SQL statements are used to perform tasks such as update data on a
database, or retrieve data from a database. Some common
relational database management systems that use SQL are: Oracle,
Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, Access, Ingres, etc.
• SQL was one of the first commercial languages for Code’s relational
model, as described in his influential 1970 paper, “A Relational
Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks.”.
• Despite not entirely adhering to the relational model as described
by Codd, it became the most widely used database language.
The standard SQL commands such as “Select”, “Insert”, “Update”,
“Delete”, “Create”, and “Drop” can be used to accomplish almost
everything that one needs to do with a database.
• This tutorial will provide you with the instruction on the basics of
each of these commands as well as allow you to put them to
practice using the SQL Interpreter.
• A database most often contains one or more tables. Each table is
identified by a name (e.g. “Customers” or “Orders”). Tables contain
records (rows) with data.
In this tutorial we will use the well-known North wind sample
database (included in MS Access and MS SQL Server).
• For example, to display data from database, select command is
• SELECT * FROM Customers;
• The most