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TURKEY 101® 11/1/2010 Russ Garrett (Smokin‟ Okie) firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright Smokin‟ Okie 2010 DO NOT plan on grilling or smoking your very first turkey on Thanksgiving Day. Practice at least once before you do this to impress your family and friends. INTRODUCTION (GENERAL SMOKINOKIE STUFF) 3 HISTORY BEHIND THE TITLE SUBJECT (INTRO) 3 HOW TO SMOKE A TURKEY IN ONE SIMPLE PAGE 4 TURKEY SELECTION 101: 5 FOOD SAFETY (HAVE TO COVER THIS) 6 KEY TO A GREAT TURKEY 7 PREPARATION (THE BEFORE SMOKING STUFF) 8 SMOKING (HOW TO) 14 SERVING (WHAT TO DO AFTER SMOKING) 19 HINTS & TIPS (TIPS AND TECHNIQUES) 20 LEFTOVERS: 21 FAQ (FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS) 22 RECIPES 23 RESOURCES / WEB LINKS (BOOKS AND ONLINE RESOURCES) 25 REFERENCES: 25 DO NOT plan on grilling or smoking your very first turkey on Thanksgiving Day. Practice at least once before you do this to impress your family and friends. Introduction (general Smokin’ Okie stuff) Thanks to everyone for their help and assistance in producing the “Turkey 101” edition of my 101 series. It‟s a very popular subject and certainly too long in coming. The amount of information I have on turkey is just too much, so I‟ll make this first attempt and consider this a work in progress. Please email me with any improvements, suggestions, comments, corrections, but don‟t send complaints (my email filter is set) . Turkey is a Holiday Favorite for everyone; Roasted, Fried, Baked, Broiled, Grilled and especially Smoked. Every year around the holidays, we seem to get an ever increasing number of requests for how to do a Smoked Turkey, so here I am to help. This next installment of my 101 series of tutorials should help just that. For now, we‟ll deal with just the Smoked Variety. For other methods, check in the references portion for places to look. I can‟t answer every conceivable Turkey question. It won‟t answer everything you want to know, but it will give you enough information for get you started so you can make your own improvements. History behind the title subject (intro) For a little Turkey history, be sure and visit http://www.eatturkey.com/consumer/history/history.html o In 2002, 271 Million Turkeys were raised o Of those 46 Million eaten on Thanksgiving o Ben Franklin wanted the Turkey, not the Bald Eagle for the National Bird How to Smoke a Turkey in one simple page Okay, so this 101 is huge, let‟s put the basics on ONE page for you to follow and produce a great bird Don‟t question, just try this, if you want to question it, write your own 101. Buy a medium sized bird, fresh, about 10 to 12 pounds, no more than say 14 pounds. Follow the directions below for brining. Brine for 48 hours (keep it in the fridge to keep it cold). Yes, use S.O. Brine for 48 hours. Take it out of the brine after 48 hours. Mix up a compound butter (75% butter, 25% rub) put this UNDERNEATH the skin. Inject if you want but you don‟t have to because you brined, rub the skin with butter (or oil). Place in a hot smoker, at least 250 degrees. About 2 hours into the smoke, rub more butter (or oil) on skin. I prefer to add a cheesecloth that‟s been soaked in butter onto the top of the bird at this time. Keep the cloth moist and don‟t let it dry out (so it doesn‟t STICK to the skin of the bird and takes the skin off when you take the cheesecloth off. Smoke until a temperature probe inserted in the breast registers 160 and the thigh registers 175 or so. It will be done in as little as 3 hours, or up to 5. Turkey Selection 101: Come on, did you REALLY know there were this many types? Frozen Turkeys o Turkeys chilled below 0 degrees F must be labeled “Frozen”. Fresh Turkeys o Turkeys may be labeled as “Fresh” if they have never been chilled below 26 degrees F. According to the National turkey Federation, turkey doesn't freeze at 32 degrees F. but at a temperature closer to 26 degrees F. Check the "use by" or "sell by" date. Hard-chilled or Deep-chilled Turkeys o Turkeys that have been chilled below 26°, but not below 0°, cannot be labeled as fresh, but don‟t have to be labeled as frozen either. They may be labeled as “not previously frozen.” Basted or Self-Basting Turkeys o These meats are also known as 'Enhanced' - Enhanced meats are injected, or vacuum treated, to increase weight by approximately 15%. Natural Turkeys o A minimally processed product containing no artificial ingredient or added color. However, it doesn't mean that the turkey has not been given antibiotics. These are essentially birds that are not „basted‟ or „self-basting.‟ The term makes no reference to the way the turkey was raised. Kosher Turkeys o These turkeys are grain-fed with no antibiotics and are allowed to roam freely. Kosher turkeys are processed and inspected under rabbinical supervision. This includes soaking in salt brine, which adds a distinctive, savory character. Much like basted or self basting, the process adds a solution to the meat and increases weight. Hen or Tom Turkeys o Hen turkeys are female birds, usually weighing from 8 to 16 pounds. Tom turkeys are males, usually weighing from 18 to 32 pounds. Free Range Turkeys o This labeling/marketing term has nothing to do with quality or taste. To add the words “Free Range” to the label, a grower must open part of their turkey house to a common yard for a matter of minutes per day. Organic Turkeys o This labeling and marketing term has nothing to do with quality, taste, tenderness or juiciness. These labeling laws are concerned with items such as feed certification, genetic engineering, and the use of ionizing radiation. While organic farming is clearly a positive revolution in our mechanized world, it is not a determination of quality, though the majority of consumers confuse it as such. Note: All high-quality American Turkeys are free of added hormones and antibiotics. The use of hormones is not allowed in any poultry, and both feed and poultry tissue is tested by inspectors to ensure there are no chemical residues. Premium Brand Turkeys o Premium brand turkeys consistently offer superior quality. Most of these producers claim that the difference between their turkeys and others is in the quality of the feed their turkeys get. Young Turkey o According to USDA regulations, a "young" turkey is a turkey of either sex that is less than 8 months old at the time of slaughter. Food Safety (have to cover this) Too many times, Food Safety isn‟t addressed, but in these 101‟s I‟ll always try to give you some important points: To defrost a turkey properly, it should be done in the refrigerator. Depending on the size of the bird and temperature of your refrigerator, it could take anywhere between three to five days to thaw. After it is thawed, the bird will keep several days in the refrigerator before spoiling. Whole turkeys that weigh 12 POUNDS OR LESS are the recommended size for safe smoking. I‟ll also do them as large as 16 or so. Key is that the lower the temp, the smaller you‟ll want your turkey. Trying to do a 24 lb turkey at 225 temp “may” remain in the "Danger Zone" - between 40° F and 140° F - too long. Do not stuff the turkey. Because smoking is at a low temperature, it can take too long for the temperature of the stuffing to reach the required temperature of 165° F. Also, smoked stuffing has an undesirable flavor. Is Pink Turkey Meat Safe (footnote 1)? All Poultry cooked in a smoker will have some tinge of pink, as part of the natural conversion of nitrate to nitrite, the process that creates the pink smoke ring. According to the National Food Safety and Information Service, the color of cooked meat and poultry is not always a sure sign of its degree of doneness. Only by using a food thermometer can one accurately determine that a meat has reached a safe temperature. Turkey, fresh pork, ground beef or veal can remain pink even after cooking to temperatures of 160 °F and higher. The meat of smoked turkey is always pink. KEY to a Great Turkey So how will your turkey be better than before? Two keys to a great turkey: Temperature control of your Smoker/Grill/Oven o Over the years, I‟ve helped a LOT of people with their turkeys. Many times, after cooking one, they complain that this or that was wrong, various things. The FIRST thing I like to ask: o What temp was your smoker? After I hear the answer, I ask how did they know. Did they test the thermometer? Do they know with certainly that the temp they think it is reflects the actual temp? o TEST YOUR SMOKER TEMP, TEST YOUR THERMOMETER, DOUBLE CHECK. Finishing temp of your Turkey o Once you know what temperature you‟re cooking at, when do you pull it? If you follow the butterball directions or the examples on MANY websites, they‟ll say, XX pounds for XX minutes. This is okay, but will definitely guarantee inconsistent results o KNOW YOUR FINISHING TEMP. o Get a remote probe thermometer that you can insert in the breast of the bird and monitor the temperature AS IT‟S COOKING. Don‟t guess. KNOW. o Test, test, test. Before any big event, I always test my thermometers by putting them in boiling water to see if they register close to 212°. If not, I note the difference so I‟ll know how to adjust. o Keep in mind, there will be a little “carry over” temp. This could be from 5° to 10°. Preparation (the before smoking stuff) Once the bird is thawed you have several choices: Do nothing but a simple rub Brine the bird Inject the bird Marinade the bird Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages so I‟ll try to give some details. Simple rub: Whether you brine or inject, one of the simplest methods to improve your turkey is to add a rub. There are 1000‟s of rubs out there, I‟ll add my favorite in this 101 for you to try. A KEY to rubbing your turkey is to place some of the rub under the skin. If you haven‟t heard about this or haven‟t tried it, please do. A lot of the flavor of the rub won‟t penetrate the tough skin, so placing the rub under the skin puts it in direct contact with the meat of the bird. To do this, gently put your fingers under the skin and meat and separate them. Be gentle as you can tear the skin. A little practice you can get all the way back. Once it‟s separated, you can use a spoon to place some rub under the skin. And don‟t forget to distribute it evenly or else someone might be a big mouthful of rub. TIP: If you want to improve a commercial rub, add some Sage to it. Poultry takes well to sage, but be careful, you can overpower it with too much Smokin’ Okie Turkey (Poultry) Rub ¼ C Dark Brown Sugar 2 TB Seasoned Salt 2 TB Paprika 1 TB Dry Sage 1 TB Granulated Onion 2 tsp Ground cumin 1.5 t Granulated Garlic 1.5 t Chili Power 1.5 t Lemon Pepper ½ t Basil ½ t Rosemary ½ t White Pepper Brining: For those of you who follow my 101‟s and see me in the forum, know I‟m a fan of Brining. In fact, see BRINING 101 for more details. Smokin’ Okie’s Holiday Turkey Brine: 1 gal. water 1 c. coarse kosher salt ¾ c. soy sauce ½ c. white sugar ½ c. brown sugar ½ c. honey ½ c. apple cider vinegar 4 Tbsp. black pepper 3 - 4 Tbsp. chopped garlic 1 tsp. Allspice 1 oz. Morton‟s Tenderquick (optional) Options: Try beer in place of some of the water, or substitute apple juice. Try a variety of spices There is a wealth of information over at Brining 101 (Google Brining 101), so please go there for more details. Main points to remember, you will almost ALWAYS have excellent results if your Poultry or Pork is Under Brined (too little salt or too little time) but it MAY be almost un-eatable if: A) The brine solution includes too much salt, B) The brine solution does not contain enough sugar, C) The meat is left in the brine solution too long Feel free to add different herbs & spices. But remember the rules; don’t adjust the salt by increasing it. Basic bird, ready to be brined: Bird in a Turkey Bag (Make sure to get all the air out) Store the bird in a cold place (below 40°) Injecting: Okay, let‟s face it, turkey tastes like turkey. Smoking will help, brining will help and rubbing will help, but another technique is to inject. There is a company out there that has made a whole business out of commercial injections. Hey, buy one of those or try one of these. To inject, get yourself a food quality injector. Also, keep in mind, big clumps of stuff in the solution will clog the injector. Fill the injector and put the needle into the meat and inject, the more locations the better. Once you inject, it‟s good to let this sit for a while, I prefer overnight if possible (but not likely, huh?). Resting allows the solution to permeate well. Injection 1: Use strained Italian dressing. Strain the chunks out and use the liquid. Injection 2: Simple solution of 1/3 cup butter, honey and white wine vinegar and a little bit of garlic salt or powder. Injection 3: Scottie‟s Creole Butter (posted on bbqsearch.com on 11/17/02 @ 17:50:00, thanks Scott) Scottie's Creole Butter - ½ can of beer - ½ lb. Butter - 1 tsp. Bonesmokers Big Time BBQ Rub (any mild BBQ rub will do) - 2 tsp. Paprika - 1 ½ tsp. White Pepper - 1 ½ tsp. Sea Salt - 1 tbsp. Garlic Powder - 1 ½ tsp. Onion Powder - 1 tsp. Coleman's Mustard - 1 tsp. Ground Black Pepper - ½ tsp. Cayenne Pepper - ½ tsp. Tabasco Warm mixture on stove until ingredients are fully dissolved. Let mixture cool a bit (but not too cold) and then inject. Marinade Marinade is another method to add flavor. The main difference between brining and marinating is simple. Brines are salty solutions and Marinades are acidic solutions. The acid in the marinade helps break down the meat. If you‟re going to marinade a bird, I highly recommend removing the skin, otherwise the marinade won‟t penetrate. Marinate for at least 12 hours. If you‟d rather leave the skin on, then follow directions for injecting. There are many marinades out there, one I‟ve used with success: 1 can of beer 2 sticks of butter 2 Tablespoons salt 3 Tablespoons of Worcestershire 3 Tablespoons of Soy Sauce 1 Teaspoon Garlic Powder 1 Teaspoon Onion Powder Option: Add Tabasco or habanero sauce to mixture for heat. Mix ingredients, simmer and then cool. Inject before butter sets up. Let marinade for 12, preferable 24 hours Smoking (how to) Okay, I‟m sure you thought I‟d never get to this part. HAHA. Or you skipped that other stuff and came directly here. Once you‟ve brined, marinated, injected or otherwise pre-prepared your bird, let‟s get down to some serious smoking. You‟ve rubbed it down, you‟re ready to go. Whoa, one thought. Stuffing in Cavity. Don‟t put stuffing in the turkey. Smoke temps of around 250 to 300 just doesn‟t get hot enough for food safety issues about stuffing. Go ahead however, and add aromatics inside the bird. You can throw some rub in there. Also throw some chunks of onion, or celery or even an orange inside the cavity. They‟ll work great. And of course you DID remove the wrapper, neck, gizzard and that stuff didn‟t you? Don‟t forget to look in the neck cavity, it might have something stuffed in there too. Remove plastic pop-up thermometer. Regardless of prep, don‟t forget to separate the skin from the meat, even if you‟re not going to put rub underneath. Why? Well according to those experts over at Cooks Illustrated, if you separate the two, you‟ll get a crisper skin. Bet you hadn‟t heard that before. See why you need these 101s! One special note, when you separate the skin like this it WILL pull back when cooking. Tuck the flap of skin over and underneath the edge of the breast and use a toothpick to hold it in place. Prepare your smoker. I‟m not going to discuss the specifics of your particular smoker. The variations are endless. Two things to keep in mind are temperature and wood. About wood: For poultry I like a simple smoke not an overpowering one. Fruit woods like apple and cherry are nice, but a good „ole Hickory smoke with a little Pecan thrown in works for me. For Cookshack smokers, I wouldn‟t use more than about 3 ozs. Mesquite is too harsh. About temp & time: The number one reason I suggest doing a practice run is to get the timing down for YOUR smoker and YOUR technique. Since the main complaint about birds is rubbery skin, I highly recommend cooking at a minimum of 250 degrees. If your smoker will go higher, you can do 275 to 325 (I do mine in this range). IF you keep it in the lower range of 250, however, you‟ll have more smoke in the bird as the cooking period will be longer but if you want a crisp skin you WILL have to finish at a higher temp; if you smoker doesn‟t get higher, use a grill. As for time, it depends. I know this isn‟t the answer you‟re looking for, but the birds themselves have a BIG impact on this. Two 12 pound birds may not come out at the same time. A “general” run of thumb is about 20 to 30 minutes per pound but that‟s as close to a time recommendation as I‟ll provide. As I get more questions about how many minutes per pound I resist more in giving a time. TEMP will be the key to a great bird, not time. For me: A brined 12 to 14 pound bird will take about 3.5 hours @ 300 or 4 hours @ 250 An un-brined bird will take about 10% longer than this. In this photo, you‟ll see the bird, placed inside the smoker, covered in Cheesecloth that has been soaked (drenched) in butter. As explained, the purpose of this is to both keep the bird moist, to reduce the amount of discoloration from excessive smoke, and to also add something to help crisp up the skin. Keep the cloth moist with butter. Lately what I‟ve been doing is actually starting with the cheesecloth OFF and after I get the look I want on the skin, I‟ll add the cheesecloth soaked in butter and keep it moist; you don‟t want to rip off the skin when you take off the cheesecloth later (if it dries out you will rip off the skin). Both methods work, either from the start or added later, you need to use what works for your smoker. Here is the finished product, smoked as I recommended. You‟ll see it comes out with a perfect color. This is the prime benefit of the cheesecloth. Works for me, I‟m sure it will work for you. FINISH TEMP, when is DONE DONE? Ah, so when DO I pull it? Toughest part is that white meat will be done at 155 to 160 and dark meat likes a little higher at 175 to 180. If you put the probe in the dark meat, and pull when the temperature hits 180, the white meat WILL BE DRY. I go for the other way. I insert the probe into the white meat and pull when it hits 160. Carryover always takes it to 165 or so. I also put the dark meat down and closest to the heat source of the smoker, letting it cook a little more. ONE TRICK. Some people like to use the ICE IN A BAG trick. They put ice in a Ziploc and then place the Ziploc on top of the breast to “cool down” the meat. There are some challenges with this. If you do it at the early part of the smoke and you‟ll prevent smoke penetration. Try it at the end of the smoke. Then the breast hits 155, add a bag of crushed ice on top (it will melt) and move the temperature probe into the dark meat. Pull the bird when the dark meat reaches 175. Serving (what to do after smoking) After your bird is finished, with an internal temp of 160 for breast and 175 for dark meat, take it out of the smoker and let it sit for 30 min, covered. This allows the juices to settle throughout the turkey. CARVING: We all love the Norman Rockwell SHOW of carving at the table, but around our house, the table is full of other good stuff. Do what I do. SHOW them the turkey, but cut it in the kitchen. With a little practice, you‟ll love this method: Step 1: Cut the leg quarter off the turkey including the thigh meat. Separate the drumstick from the thigh and set the drumstick on the platter. Step 2. Debone the thigh by running a knife on both sides of the thigh then removing the bone. Look for the grain of the thigh meat. Cut ACROSS grain on the bone has been removed. Step 3. Remove wing. Cut the wing at the joints, set on platter. Step 4. Separate the breast from the bone. Cut along each side of the breast, following the contour of the bones. Gently pull the breast away from the bone to help cutting. Step 5. Look for the grain of the breast. Cut the breast across the grain into good sized slices. Remove skin if you want to or leave it. Repeat on other side Hints & tips (tips and techniques) Use white pepper instead of black – makes a better presentation. Make sure to separate the skin from the meat by inserting your fingers in between the skin and meat to separate them. This leads to a crisper skin. Just like your mother did, basting is a good thing. Yes, it will increase the time for smoking because heat will seep out of your smoker, but the skin will come out better Start your turkey breast side up, but ½ way through the smoke, flip it breast side down. This will help the juices flow down to the breast, keeping it moist. For thanksgiving, do two. One full turkey for presentation, and one turkey breast. If you brine it and follow my directions, you‟ll have people wanting more white meat next time they return. Instead of brining, I saw a post by Kit Anderson about koshering his bird using the directions from the Morton‟s Kosher Salt box. I haven‟t tried it, but let me know if any of you have. If your turkey comes with a metal prong that holds the cavity closed, remove and set it aside. More about turkey breast. For a simple trick, marinate it overnight in a good Italian Dressing, skin off. Take it out of the marinate, sprinkle it with rub, any good Poultry style rub. Add some heat to it, such as paprika. Smoke it at 250 until 155. Take it out and let it sit. It will rise to 160 within about 30 min. Smoke your turkey like your chicken; in individual pieces, cut in half or butterfly it and lay it out in the smoker that way. Debone the entire breast. Brine and smoke. Leftovers: Don‟t throw the carcass away; use it to make your own stock. Put the carcass into a large pot. You‟ll need the traditional Mirepoix of carrots (5 or 6) onion (one) and celery (one whole). Fill with enough water to cover the turkey, at least 2 inches or more. Cover and let simmer overnight, on a medium low setting. Add water as necessary to keep turkey covered. Next day, remove large pieces from stock. Strain liquid from cooking pot into another container. Use a colander to strain large pieces. You can make the stock either chunky (with little bits) or strain it through a cheese cloth to remove ALL small bits. The stock can be frozen and used throughout the year for soup starter. Instead of a BLT make a TLT (Turkey Lettuce and Tomato). Dice the turkey and make a salad. Pitas. Chuck the turkey up and use it as your meat, add some romaine lettuce, Caesar dressing and cheese and put in a Pita Pocket. Lots of options, just Google “turkey leftover recipes” and you‟ll get 578,000 hits. FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) Dry Pretty common and the main reason I brine mine. Because the turkey has both white and dark meats, it‟s very hard to get one done without affecting the other. Dark is done at 175, white is done at 160. See the issue? Brining helps the white meat from being over dry, while smoking until the dark meat hits 175. This is also a good reason for keeping the thighs down and the breast up. Drying occurs because the two kinds of meat, white & dark are actually done at different times. They also contain different levels of moisture and fat. White meat will be done at 160 and dark will be done at 175. An added bonus is leftovers; because of brining they won‟t be as dry as your normal turkey leftovers. You can also cover your breast to prevent a little overcooking in the breast. Frequently add moisture if dryness is a problem. Basting does wonders for keeping the breast moist and it will help the color of the bird. Not crispy skin Main cause is too low a temp. You can solve this a couple of ways; Remove the skin. Don‟t have to have it. Spray the skin with olive oil, butter or some other liquid. Cheese cloth. I soak a cheese cloth in butter. Lately what I‟ve been doing is actually starting with the cheesecloth OFF and after I get the look I want on the skin, I‟ll add the cheesecloth soaked in butter. The cloth allows the smoke to penetrate and helps with problem #1, dry bird by keeping moisture on the bird. Skin too dark: Main cause of this is too much smoke. Make sure you‟re not using too much wood. In a CS, cut the amount in half. You‟ll still get the smoke flavor you desire. Another benefit of the cheese cloth is to prevent this problem. Some suggest putting your bird in a paper bag, but I don‟t recommend this. Smoke won‟t penetrate the bag and who knows what chemicals are inside the paper. Recipes There are 1000‟s of recipes out there and I could fill up an entire book in just turkey recipes. Check out some of the references I‟ve made or look at this for some ideas. Gary's Hawaiian Turkey (footnote 2) 15-pound turkey Brine: 2 quarts cold water 1-1/2 cups soy sauce 1 cup lemon juice 2 cups brown sugar 1 large onion, sliced 1 large piece fresh ginger, crushed 6 garlic cloves, crushed 1 tablespoon allspice 1 tablespoon black pepper Submerge turkey in brine mixture; soak 8 to 12 hours. Smoke in covered grill on low (180 degrees) 2-1/2 hours or more, until bird is dark brown. Aim for a smoldering fire made with a small amount of charcoal topped with wet wood chips; use tongs to add charcoal, a few pieces at a time. Inexperienced cooks should use a thermometer to measure cooker's interior temperature. Then, cook on high (300 degrees) 2 more hours; add a lot of charcoal and open air vents. Meat thermometer should read 180 degrees. Makes 18 7 to 8-ounce servings. Ray's Tipsy Chicken (footnote 2) This suggests chicken, but it works well for Turkey also 3-1/2-pound chicken fryer 3 tablespoons hot sauce 2 tablespoons Cajun seasoning mix 1/2 of 12-ounce can beer 1/2 cup barbecue sauce 2 tablespoons canola oil Tipsy mixture: 1 teaspoon onion juice 1 teaspoon garlic juice 1/2 tablespoon soy sauce 1/2 tablespoon Worcestershire 1/2 tablespoon liquid smoke Rub chicken all over with 2 tablespoons EACH hot sauce and seasoning mix. Combine tipsy- mixture ingredients with remaining tablespoon hot sauce; pour into half-filled beer can and swirl to combine. Place chicken, cavity side down, over beer can; place in center of covered grill, and close lid. Cook 2 hours (heat will reduce to 250 degrees) or until juices run clear in thickest parts of breast and thigh. In saucepan, warm barbecue sauce and oil 3 to 4 minutes on stove or grill top; brush sauce generously on chicken. Remove bird from grill, pour remaining beer can mixture over meat. Cut meat in pieces and serve immediately. Makes six 6-ounce servings. Smoked "Super Buzzard " Turkey! Posted by Geoff Maw on November 23, 1997 at 12:28:40 1 Fresh Turkey (Completely Thawed ) 1 Unpeeled Orange 1 Apple Combine the Following: Sage, Basil, Chopped Garlic, 2 Onions, Thyme, Pepper 1/4 a Package of Bacon ( Optional ) 1/4 Cup Sherry Put the above in a food processor/blender and reduce till it is of a paste texture. Clean Turkey and then with fingers gently separate skin from meat at the breast, sides and leg area's. With fingers place above paste up under the skin evenly. Then cut orange and apple into quarters and place them into cavity. Resources / Web Links (books and online resources) References: 1. Food Safety and Information Services, October 2001 bulletin; “Is Pink Turkey Meat Safe?” 2. Old website: By Catherine Kekoa Enomoto (do a search for “turkey in a Kamado) 1. List of sources/websites: http://www.eatturkey.com/consumer/main.html Cooking tips, what to do with those leftovers (over 700 recipes) http://www.bbqsearch.com/search/43529.shtm Also known as the infamous BBQ Search Turkey Link. A number of the links are no longer working, but there are a couple here that are good http://www.bbqsearch.com/search/43529.shtm (BBQ Search Turkey page) http://www.virtualweberbullet.com/turkey3.html Virtual Weber Turkey, basic brine http://www.virtualweberbullet.com/turkeyselect.html Virtual Weber Turkey selection http://www.virtualweberbullet.com/turkey2.html Virtual Weber Honey Brined http://www.virtualweberbullet.com/turkey1.html Virtual Weber Turkey Breast
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