All research begins with the formulation of a hypothesis which is later examined on the basis of the collected data, and is either proved to be true or false. No experiment or research can ever be carried out without first formulating a specific and accurately worded hypothesis. A hypothesis is an assumption, proving the credibility of which is the ultimate goal of the research conducted. All data gathered from the experiment is subjected to statistical analysis and examination with the help of adequate statistical tools to reach the conclusion.
A scientist has the liberty to formulate any kind of hypothesis and test it in whichever way they deem fit to determine its acceptance or rejection as a theory. For this purpose, several statistical methods are at the disposal of the scientist, the most popular among which is called hypothesis testing. The most common hypothesis testing strategy applied is the A/B testing technique, although several other methods are available. The process of hypothesis testing includes the processes of experimentation on the subjects and/or conducting interviews and surveys, compiling the data achieved, and then analyzing the same to arrive at the conclusion.