The Middle Ages
♠ 1100’s to 1400’s in Europe
♠ Travel was extremely dangerous; nevertheless, people travelled as far as China and other
unknown places to those living in Europe
♠ Trade was the main reason for travel, especially to China, which was rich in spices and
♠ As well, they travelled across the Sahara to Africa, as well as to other trading post
♠ Nationalism, pride in ones country, or a sense of belonging to a particular country, was
high, especially in England, France, and Scotland.
♠ Many wars were undertaken in the name of religion, the most famous of which, the
Crusades, was started when Christian knights from England set out to free the Holy Land
(Israel/Palestine), from Infidels (Muslims).
♠ By far, the most important invention of the middle ages came at its close, the printing
press. Suddenly, learning came within reach of anyone who could read.
The Crusades I
♠ To Christians everywhere, Palestine, where Jesus lived, was the Holy Land.
♠ Even after Muslim Arabs conquered Palestine, pilgrims were free to come and go as
♠ When the Seljuk Turks, who were Muslim, invaded and took over Palestine, they
began to persecute Christians.
♠ When word of this persecution got back to the Pope, the Crusades began.
♠ Pope Urban II called on Christian leaders to free the Holy Land from the Infidels.
The Crusades II
♠ Since the knights were going to Palestine, they wore a red cross painted on their chest.
♠ They were known as Crusaders, which comes from the Spanish word Cruzada, which
means marked with the cross.
♠ The first Crusades were led by a disorganized group, whose heads were Peter the Hermit
and Walter the Penniless. However they died on the journey, and never reached Palestine
♠ Later, a well-disciplined army, led by King Richard I, recaptured Jerusalem and set up
four Christian kingdoms.
♠ Upon conquering Jerusalem, the crusaders attempted to forcibly convert the Muslim