Chronic Venous Insufficiency refers to lower extremity edema, skin trophic changes, and
discomfort secondary to venous hypertension. Chronic venous insufficiency pathophysiology is
either due to reflux or obstruction of venous blood flow. Chronic venous insufficiency can
develop from the protracted valvular inadequacy of superficial veins, deep veins, or perforating
veins that combine them.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency Signs and Symptoms
The most common Chronic Venous Insufficiency symptoms are tight feeling in calves,
painful legs, swelling in legs or ankles, painful leg cramps or muscle spasms, skin changes,
varicose veins, leg ulcers, etc.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency Epidemiology
Chronic venous ulcers are painful and debilitating. Nearly 60% develop phlebitis, which often
progresses to deep vein thrombosis in more than 50% of patients. The venous insufficiency can
also lead to acute hemorrhage. Surgery for Chronic venous insufficiency remains inadequate
despite the availability of numerous procedures.
As per the study conveyed by Owayed Al Shammeri et al. (2014), Chronic Venous Insufficiency
usually affects lower limbs with a prevalence fluctuating between 25–40% and 10–20% in
women and men, respectively.
The annual incidence is 2–6% in women and 1.9% in men. As per the study conducted by José-
Román Escudero Rodríguez et al. (2013), the greater the age, the higher the prevalence and
the more advanced the chronic venous ulcers. 99% of the patients required some form of
treatment, with a more significant proportion among women. Sclerotherapy, endothermal
ablation, or surgery was needed by 4% of the patients.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency Treatment Options
Chronic venous insufficiency is not a benign disorder and carries enormous morbidity. Without
correction, the condition is progressive. Venous ulcers are apparent and very difficult to treat.
Patients with chronic venous insufficiency should be treated based on the severity and nature of
the disease. The treatment’s