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BOC Sciences provides various types of clodronate liposomes and control liposomes to our customers. All liposomes are prepared under sterile
Why use Clodronate Liposomes?
Macrophages play an important role in the host defense response and the regulation of many biological processes. Their main activity is phagocytosis
and the production and release of soluble mediators (such as NO, cytokines, and chemokines).
Methods to manipulate macrophage activity through liposome-encapsulated molecules
Drugs that interfere with cellular metabolic pathways can be encapsulated in liposomes, to study their effects on macrophages (drug methods).
Drugs that selectively interfere with signaling pathways in macrophages can be encapsulated in liposomes
However, signal transduction pathways and compounds affecting these pathways are still under investigation. Therefore, so far, the former method is
generally used to inhibit macrophage activity by administering liposome-encapsulated bisphosphonate clodronate.
How Do Clodronate Liposomes Induce Apoptosis in Phagocytes?
Once clodronate is encapsulated in liposomes, it can specifically target phagocytes. Liposomes can be quickly recognized and swallowed by
macrophages, allowing an effective clodronate concentration threshold to trigger target cell apoptosis. Clodronate encapsulated in liposomes is
recognized as a foreign body by phagocytes and is taken into internal vesicles called phagosomes. After phagocytosis, the phagosome fuses with the
lysosome containing phospholipase, which destroys the phospholipid bilayer of the liposome, thereby allowing clodronate to be released in the cell.
Once clodronate is released in the cytoplasm, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase will mistakenly identify it as pyrophosphate and will use clodronate to
generate the non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue (AppCCl2p). Then, this ATP analog translocates to the mit