Environment, and Security:
A Summary of the Issues
N U M B E R 22
WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL
CENTER FOR SCHOLARS
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1999
Project on Urbanization, Population,
Environment, and Security.
Supported by the U.S. Agency for
International Development through a
cooperative agreement with the
University of Michigan's Population
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
The Center is the nation’s living memorial to Woodrow
Wilson, president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
Created by law in 1968, the Center is Washington, D.C.’s
only independent, wide-ranging institute for advanced
study where vital current issues and their deep historical
background are explored through research and dialogue.
Visit the Center on the Worldwide web at http://
Director: Lee H. Hamilton
Board of Trustees: Joseph A. Cari, Jr., Chair; Steven
Alan Bennett, Vice Chair
Ex officio trustees: Madeleine K. Albright, Secretary of
State; James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress; John
W. Carlin, Archivist of the United States; Penn Kemble,
Acting Director, U.S. Information Agency; William R.
Ferris, Chair, National Endowment for the Humanities; I.
Michael Heyman, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution; Ri-
chard W. Riley, Secretary of Education; Donna E. Shalala,
Secretary of Health and Human Services
Trustee designated by the president from within the
government: Samuel R. Berger, National Security Ad-
Private citizen trustees: Carol Cartwright; Daniel L.
Doctoroff; Jean L. Hennessey; Daniel L. Lamaute; Paul
Hae Park; Thomas Reedy; S. Dillon Ripley
The Wilson Council: Albert Abramson; Cyrus Ansary;
J. Burchenal Ault; Charles F. Barber; Theodore C.
Barreaux; Joseph C. Bell, Esq.; John L. Bryant, Jr.;
Conrad Cafritz; Nicola L. Caiola; Raoul L. Carroll; Albert
V. Casey; Peter B. Clark; William T. Coleman, Jr.; Michael
D. DiGiacomo; Frank P. Doyle; Donald G. Drapkin; F.
Samuel Eberts III; I. Steven Edelson; John Foster; Bar-
bara Hackman Frankl