The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a trade agreement among twelve Pacific Rim countries signed on 4 February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand, after seven years of negotiations, which has not entered into force. The 30 chapters of the TPP Agreement concern many matters of public policy and a stated goal to "promote economic growth; support the creation and retention of jobs; enhance innovation, productivity and competitiveness; raise living standards; reduce poverty in our countries; and promote transparency, good governance, and enhanced labor and environmental protections." Among other things, the Agreement contains measures to lower trade barriers such as tariffs, and establish an investor-state dispute settlement mechanism (but states can opt out from tobacco-related measures). The United States government has considered the TPP as the companion agreement to the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), a broadly similar agreement between the United States and the European Union.
Historically, the TPP is an expansion of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPSEP or P4), which was signed by Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore in 2005. Beginning in 2008, additional countries joined the discussion for a broader agreement: Australia, Canada, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, the United States, and Vietnam, bringing the total number of participating countries in the negotiations to twelve. Current trade agreements between participating countries, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, will be reduced to those provisions that do not conflict with the TPP, or that provide greater trade liberalization than the TPP.
Participating nations aimed at completing negotiations in 2012, but contentious issues such as agriculture, intellectual property, and services and investments prolonged negotiations. They finally reached agreement on 5 October 2015. Implementing the TPP has been one of the trade agenda goals of the Obama administration in the US. On 5 October 2015 Canadian prime minister Stephen Harper expected "signatures on the finalized text and deal early in the new year, and ratification over the next two years." A version of the text of the treaty "Subject to Legal Review (...) for Accuracy, Clarity and Consistency" was made public on 5 November 2015, the same day President Obama notified Congress that he intends to sign it.
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NATIONAL TREATMENT AND MARKET ACCESS FOR GOODS
Section A: Definitions and Scope
Article 2.1: Definitions
For the purposes of this Chapter:
advertising films and recordings means recorded visual media or audio
materials, consisting essentially of images or sound, showing the nature or
operation of goods or services offered for sale or lease by a person of a Party, that
are of a kind suitable for exhibition to prospective customers but not for broadcast
to the general public;
Agreement on Agriculture means the Agreement on Agriculture, set out in
Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement;
commercial samples of negligible value means commercial or trade samples:
having a value, individually or in the aggregate as shipped, of not more than one
U.S. dollar or the equivalent amount in the currency of another Party; or so
marked, torn, perforated or otherwise treated that they are unsuitable for sale or
for use except as commercial samples;
consular transactions means requirements that goods of a Party intended for
export to the territory of another Party must first be submitted to the supervision
of the consul of the importing Party in the territory of the exporting Party for the
purpose of obtaining consular invoices or consular visas for commercial invoices,
certificates of origin, manifests, shippers’ export declarations, or any other
customs documentation required on or in connection with importation;
consumed means, with respect to a good:
actually consumed; or
further processed or manufactured:
so as to result in a substantial change in the value, form or
use of the good; or
in the production of another good;
duty-free means free of customs duty;
goods admitted for sports purposes means sports requisites admitted into the
territory of the importing Party for use in sports contests, demonstrations or
training in the territory of that Party;
goods intended for display or demonstration includes their co