Informationally complete characters for quark and lepton mixings

Informationally complete characters for quark and lepton mixings, updated 6/12/20, 9:34 PM


A popular account of the mixing patterns for the three generations of quarks and leptons is through the characters κ of a finite group G. Here we introduce a d-dimensional Hilbert space with d=cc(G), the number of conjugacy classes of G. Groups under consideration should follow two rules, (a) the character table contains both two- and three-dimensional representations with at least one of them faithful and (b) there are minimal informationally complete measurements under the action of a d-dimensional Pauli group over the characters of these representations. Groups with small d that satisfy these rules coincide in a large part with viable ones derived so far for reproducing simultaneously the CKM (quark) and PNMS (lepton) mixing matrices. Groups leading to physical CP violation are singled out.

About Klee Irwin

Klee Irwin is an author, researcher and entrepreneur who now dedicates the majority of his time to Quantum Gravity Research (QGR), a non-profit research institute that he founded in 2009. The mission of the organization is to discover the geometric first-principles unification of space, time, matter, energy, information, and consciousness.


As the Director of QGR, Klee manages a dedicated team of mathematicians and physicists in developing emergence theory to replace the current disparate and conflicting physics theories. Since 2009, the team has published numerous papers and journal articles analyzing the fundamentals of physics.

Klee is also the founder and owner of Irwin Naturals, an award-winning global natural supplement company providing alternative health and healing products sold in thousands of retailers across the globe including Whole Foods, Vitamin Shoppe, Costco, RiteAid, WalMart, CVS, GNC and many others. Irwin Naturals is a long time supporter of Vitamin Angels, which aims to provide lifesaving vitamins to mothers and children at risk of malnutrition thereby reducing preventable illness, blindness, and death and creating healthier communities.

Outside of his work in physics, Klee is active in supporting students, scientists, educators, and founders in their aim toward discovering solutions to activate positive change in the world.  He has supported and invested in a wide range of people, causes and companies including, Upworthy, Donors Choose, Moon Express, Mayasil, the X PRIZE Foundation, and Singularity University where he is an Associate Founder.

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