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Wine Basics From grapes to Glass Claudia Steen Definitions Viticulture The science and business of growing wine grapes • Vigneron - Cultivator of grape vines / wine maker • Vitis vinifera – wine grape (Genus/species) Enology • The science of wine production • Enologist (vintner) - wine maker • Enophile - someone who enjoys wine History of wine • Earliest wine 8000 BC in Mesopotamia • 2500 BC - Egyptians • Greek & Romans worshiped a god of wine • Bacchus – Roman • Dionysus - Greek • Wine is referred to in the Bible • Middle Ages - monks took the ancients' knowledge of winemaking and refined it History of WA wine grapes • First vines planted in WA state in 1825 Fort Vancouver – Hudson Bay Co. • 1860 in Walla Walla • Dr. Walter Clore – father of Washington wine • 2014 statistics – WA Wine Commission • 50,000 acres in production • 40 + varieties planted • 350 grape growers • 227,000 tons of grapes harvested • 890 + wineries • 16 million cases of wine produced • 4.4 billion dollar industry 53% white wines 47% red wines Health Benefits of Wine • Wine, in moderation, is a health benefit: • decreased incident of heart attacks & strokes (the French paradox) • reduce tumors • block formation of amyloidal plaques which contribute to Alzheimer's • better dental health, etc • Flavonoids - Anthocyanin in grape skin give red color • decreases cholesterol • Rich in antioxidants Health Benefits of Wine • Resveratrol – a class of antioxidants known as polyphenols • Found in tannins in grape skin, seeds, stems • Is produced by plants to ward off fungal infections and other diseases WINE IS MADE IN THE VINEYARD Wine grape growing primarily between 30-50 degrees latitude • 50 degree - cool climate wine characteristics 6-7 months to ripen, ↑ acid, ↓ sugar (alcohol), lighter color, not as fruit forward, more delicate body • 30 degree - warm climate wine characteristics 4-5 months to ripen, ↓ acid, ↑ sugar, deeper color (↑ skin to pulp ratio), fuller body, more fruit forward Areas of the World with highest wine production USA production #1 – California #2 – Washington #3 – New York Terroir Sense of place • French for terre – land • Influenced by: • geography • geology (soil type) • Mosel region - blue slate • Champagne region – limestone • Yakima Valley – Missoula floods • climate (water, sunlight, temperature) • plant genetics • microclimates Appellations • Unique growing regions Old World - Europe & Mediterranean • can have mineral notes Burgundy, Loire, Champagne, Bordeaux in France • wines often labeled by region • Chablis = Chardonnay • Chianti = Sangiovese • Sancerre = Sauvignon Blanc New World - All other areas (green) • S A (Chile, Argentina), South Africa, America (CA, WA, OR, NY), Australia, NZ • wines often labeled by the grape varietal • Cabernet, Chardonnay, Riesling Appellations • AVA - American Viticulture Area • WA state has 13 appellations • Yakima Valley - 1983 • Walla Walla Valley - 1984 • Columbia Valley 1984 • Puget Sound - 1995 • Red Mountain - 2001 • Columbia Gorge 2004 • Horse Heaven Hills - 2005 • Wahluke Slope - 2006 • Rattlesnake Hills - 2006 • Snipes Mountain - 2009 • Lake Chelan - 2009 • Naches Heights - 2011 • Ancient Lakes - 2012 In the Vineyard • Grape harvest • Picked when grapes ripe approximately 24 brix of sugar • Read in refractometer (hydrometer) measures total solids in a solution Glucose or fructose plus yeast converts to ethanol plus carbon dioxide during fermentation C6H12O6 + yeast = 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2 • 2 brix = 1% sugar = 1% alcohol In the Vineyard • Acids Picked when grape pH is approximately 3.2 - 3.4 found in the grape berry pulp • Other indicators of ripeness • Leaves turn brown and photosynthesis slows or stops • Seeds inside go from green tinge to brown • Squeeze berry, pulp is juicy & tastes good! Lab report on “must” Acids - gives wine body and structure • Titratable acidity (TA) • pH • L - Malic acid - harsher acid • Tartaric acid - the principal acid in grapes promotes flavor and aging in wine • Lactic acid - softer acid Harvesting the grapes • Can be hand picked or machine picked • Snips remove grape cluster to bucket • Place full buckets into bins At the Winery • Bins transported to the winery • Grapes loaded into stemmer / crusher • Stems are removed and discarded • White wine • Juice is pressed away from the skin & seeds • Juice goes into stainless steel fermentation tanks • Rose' wine • Often use red grapes • Juice is pressed away from the skin & seeds • Imparts a pink color and then treated like white wine At the Winery Juice with skin and seeds is called "must“ • Red wine • Must goes into large vats for initial fermentation • Yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae) is added • Cover with cloth (to keep out fruit flies) • Punch down cap daily (skins float - seeds (pips) go to the bottom) • Smell is wonderful! Types of Wine • Still • Cabernet – King of wine • Chardonnay – Queen of wine • Sparkling • Champagne - France • Cava - Spain • Proseco - Italy • Fortified (brandy) • Port – Ruby, Vintage, Tawny • Sherry Wine grape Varieties Noble grapes – most popular, grown worldwide • Whites • Riesling • Sauvignon blanc • Chardonnay • Reds • Pinot Noir • Merlot • Cabernet Sauvignon • Syrah (Shiraz) • Many other varieties Wine Production • Red wine • After initial fermentation the wine is pressed off skin & seeds • Can have secondary malolactic (ML) fermentation (Lactobacillus bacteria) • The harsher malic acid is changed to the softer lactic acid • One bi-product is Diacetyl which gives a buttery flavor and enhances complexity • Placed into Oak barrels or maturation tanks Budding in the spring Wine Production •White or Rose wine • Continue fermentation in cooled stainless steel tanks •Fermentation changes sugar to alcohol • White/Rose wines - can stop fermentation process if residual sugar desired or zero if dry • Red wines often fermented to zero sugar Maturation Process • Racking over • Take wine off the top and place into another vessel - leaving the "lees" or sediment (dead yeast, seeds, grape solids) • Most reds (some whites) put into Oak barrels for barrel maturation • Coopers cut oak staves and construct barrel • Toasting (carmelization) of the wood imparts flavors to the wine • Barrel flavors only lasts 2-3 years • Vanillin (phenolic aldehyde) C8H8O3 • Lactones (coconut) • Phenols a perceived sweetness • Spice notes, Leather, few tannins Barrels are toasted • Can choose degree of toasting • Light - LT • Med – MT • Heavy – HT • Now can get oak chips to add to wine in neutral barrels Maturation Process • Types of Oak • American Oak - $$ stronger flavors • French Oak - $$$$ tighter grain, better quality • Hungarian Oak - $ not as strong flavors as American • Neutral Oak – used in primary fermentation or maturation where little oak is required • Topping off • Oak is porous and water evaporates • need to add wine to head space to discourage oxidation Wine ready for bottling • Filtering in order to clarify wine • Fining done with White wine egg whites capture solids • White/Rose often consumed within 2-3 years (exceptions - Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, etc) • Reds often aged before consuming • Controversy to fine Reds • red wine is often opaque, especially in thick skin grapes (Cabernet, Merlot) • many feel it will remove texture & structure Types of bottles • Bordeaux - shoulders • Burgandy - slopped sides • Rhine (hock) - tapered • Others – bocksbeutel • Specialty bottles • Champagne - thick glass/special stopper • Dessert wines - sweet often in splits • Fortified wines - Port Colors of glass • Glass colors varies • White/Rose’ wines in clear, light green, yellow green, blue • Reds in dark green, brown • Important to shield from the light • Why is there a Punt at the bottom of the bottle? • Necessary when they were hand blown • Traps the sediment • Provides a more stable base • No need - some bottles have no punt Types of closures • Cork • industry standard BUT • decreased supply of cork trees from Portugal - increased cost • composite cork often used • cork taint from low quality cork • oxidized wine from cork failure • Synthetic cork • seems to not have any issues • Twist top - screw cap • primarily used for whites/rose that are consumed young, fruit forward • Also now for reds - important to keep oxygen out of the bottle Composite Cork plug How do you know a bottle has been oxidized? • White wines take on deeper yellow color • Red wines take on brownish color • Can smell volatile acidity (acetone) – VA • Cork taint - dirty socks/wet dog smell • Cork tree pesticides or chlorine bleach residue (so now use peroxide) • Corky mildew – TCA trichloroanisole fungi + chlorophenol compounds • Wine can taste like vinegar (acetic acid) Life is too short to drink bad wine! • Foil placed around top of bottle • Helps to keep cork sealed • Color is choice of winemaker Wine Labels • Label placed on bottle is winemakers choice as to design BUT some mandatory requirements: • Must get approval from ATF • Vintage Date - Year grapes were picked • Name of the winery/contact information • Name of the wine varietal • Pure varietal - must be 80% by volume to be labeled as such • Blended wine – nice to state blend percentages • Can also make up name of wine • Estate Bottled – grapes from winery • Reserve designation – extra aging occurs • Net Content – 750 ml Wine Labels • Any oak information – kind, length, toast • Appellation of Origin - AVA • Vineyard designation (always nice) • Mission statement / statement about the wine or winemaker • Percentage of residual sugar • Percentage of alcohol • Government Warning requirement • Declaration of sulfites if over a certain percent Wine Tasting Event • Showcase their selection of wines to the public • Need to assure no strong aromas in the area – cigars, strong perfume • Before YOU go wine tasting • Assure you have eaten recently • Assure you keep hydrated • Cleanse pallet between wines with a cracker or sip of water • Many offer tasting notes • Information on their wine selections • Rule of thumb for serving • White before Rose’ • Rose’ before Red • Dry before sweet • Softer before more tannic Wine Tasting Event Temperature of Wine Correct temperature enhances the flavor of wine Wine cellar for long term storage 60 degrees Temperature of wine • Before serving • Whites and Rose’ often chilled (35-40 degrees) • Reds served at room temperature (55-65 degrees) • OK to slightly chill light bodied reds before serving • Store all bottles • horizontal or up side down position so oxygen does not get into the bottle Opening the bottle of wine • Use foil cutter to remove foil over the cork • Use wine key to remove cork • Winged cork screw • Ah -So cork puller • Waiters cork screw • Rabbit - easiest Saving the bottle of wine • Wine diamonds • crystals of tartaric acid (tartrates) • seen on bottom of cork • does not affect the quality of the wine (cold stabilization) •Any unconsumed wine Does that exist?!?! • Can use fancy stopper • Best to use vacuum sealer • Removes oxygen from the bottle • Store white wine in refrigerator Rose Red White Wine glass selection • Many to chose from • Stemmed / glass • Stemless / plastic • Riedel • Cadillac of wine glasses • hand blown • thin glass • shape is important • White/Rose • Riesling glass • Reds • Pinot glass • Bordeaux glass • Balloon glass Pouring the wine into the glass • For all wine • Host fills his glass first to remove any cork peices • Tilt the glass and pour wine down the side • Fill only ¼ cup if tasting • Fill glass half full if drinking (need room to swirl) • For Red • Allow bottle to “breathe” • Pour gently as to not disturb any sediment • Pour through aerator or decant into another vessel The Actual Wine tasting The 5 S's 1. See color and clarity • Tilt the glass over a white background • Look at core of the glass and note color and intensity • Look at rim of the glass and note color • Note opacity • can you read text through the core? 1. young cabernet, 2. old cabernet/merlot 3. young merlot 4. young syrah, 5. young pinot noir, 6. old pinot noir The Actual Wine tasting The 5 S's 2. Swirl • Place glass on flat surface • Move glass in circular motion • Causes aromas to be released • Can see the sheets or legs of glycerol that run down the glass The Actual Wine tasting The 5 S's 3. Sniff • hold glass in the middle of your chest / smell • very aromatic wine • hold glass at your chin • moderately aromatic • put nose inside of glass • neutral or muted • note what you smell • fruits, citrus, stone fruits, blackberry, green pepper, leather, etc • LeNez Du Vin set • 54 wine aromas for students The Actual Wine tasting The 5 S's 4. Sip • Take about a tablespoon - roll it around on your tongue • 1st sip - cleanse the pallet only - don't judge the wine at this point • 2nd sip - note the reaction on your tongue • sweet at tip – residual sugar • sour on sides - acidity • bitter at the back - tannins • mouth feel - texture - viscosity (skim milk, whole milk, cream) • it is light, medium or full bodied • thermo reaction - warmth is from increased alcohol The Actual Wine tasting The 5 S's 5. Savor • Judge the quality of the wine • Balance - the relationship between fruit, acid, residual sugar, alcohol and tannin(velvety/drying sensation) • No one of these components should stand out significantly from the rest • Finish • how long flavor lasts • how did it leave your mouth • Complexity - layers of flavor • Long list of descriptors • In the end taste is very personal Wine is considered a food • Wine is best paired with food • Basic idea • Whites with fish • Reds with meat • But Much More! • Pairing charts available • Wine is best enjoyed with family and friends The Joys of drinking a Good glass of wine! • Any Questions? Thank You It’s Wine o’clock somewhere!