Curiosità dal mondo della fisica. Dalla realtà di π al mondo dei quanti

Mar 13, 2019 | Publisher: Maurizio Zani | Category: Other |  | Collection: Physics dissemination

Curiosit dal mondo della fisica: dalla realt di al mondo dei quanti Maurizio Zani Cogestione, Liceo Volta, Milano 20/02/2019 Liceo Alessandro Volta bar (Brescia, Via Corf) scultura (Siracusa, Largo Calipari) ristorante (Otranto, Via delle Torri) profumo (Givenchy) https://www.facebook.com/Pigrecobarbottegabrescia http://carlo.gfaktor.it http://pigreco-ristorante.it https://www.givenchy.com = costante p d p = perimetro = = costante = 2 p p d r p Leonhard Euler**, svizzero (1748) "Per brevit scriveremo questo numero ; cos uguale a met della circonferenza di un cerchio di raggio 1" William Jones*, gallese (1706) Chiama questa costante , iniziale greca della parola perimetro della circonferenza, ma soprattutto in onore di Pitagora ** Introductio in analysin infinitorum * Synopsis Palmariorum Matheseos = 3. 1415926535 8979323846 2643383279 5028841971 6939937510 5820974944 5923078164 0628620899 8628034825 3421170679 8214808651 3282306647 0938446095 5058223172 5359408128 4811174502 8410270193 8521105559 6446229489 5493038196 4428810975 6659334461 2847564823 3786783165 2712019091 4564856692 3460348610 4543266482 1339360726 0249141273 7245870066 0631558817 4881520920 9628292540 9171536436 7892590360 0113305305 4882046652 1384146951 9415116094 3305727036 5759591953 0921861173 8193261179 3105118548 0744623799 6274956735 1885752724 8912279381 8301194912 9833673362 4406566430 8602139494 6395224737 1907021798 6094370277 0539217176 2931767523 8467481846 7669405132 0005681271 4526356082 7785771342 7577896091 7363717872 1468440901 2249534301 4654958537 1050792279 6892589235 4201995611 2129021960 8640344181 5981362977 4771309960 5187072113 4999999837 2978049951 0597317328 1609631859 5024459455 3469083026 4252230825 3344685035 2619311881 7101000313 7838752886 5875332083 8142061717 7669147303 5982534904 2875546873 1159562863 8823537875 9375195778 1857780532 1712268066 1300192787 6611195909 2164201989 3809525720 1065485863 2788659361 5338182796 8230301952 0353018529 6899577362 2599413891 2497217752 8347913151 5574857242 4541506959 5082953311 6861727855 8890750983 8175463746 4939319255 0604009277 0167113900 9848824012 8583616035 6370766010 4710181942 9555961989 4676783744 9448255379 7747268471 0404753464 6208046684 2590694912 9331367702 8989152104 7521620569 6602405803 8150193511 2533824300 3558764024 7496473263 9141992726 0426992279 6782354781 6360093417 2164121992 4586315030 2861829745 5570674983 8505494588 5869269956 9092721079 7509302955 ... decimali (qui i primi 1500) http://www.piday.org/million Babilonesi* (2000 a.C.) = 3.125 1 25 = 3 + = 8 8 * tavoletta di argilla = 3.160... Egiziani** (1650 a.C.) ** papiro di Rhind, problema #50 2 16 = 9 sottostima sovrastima = 3 Primo Libro dei Re (600-500 a.C.) [7,23] (Salomone) Fece un bacino di metallo fuso di dieci cubiti* da un orlo all'altro (d), rotondo; la sua altezza (h) era di cinque cubiti e la sua circonferenza (p) di trenta cubiti. * 1 cubito 50 cm 30 = = 10 p d h d p 0 decimali Archimede*, italiano (250 a.C.) 3.1408 < < 3.1429 2 decimali < < 10 3 + 10 3 + 71 70 * poligono di 96 lati Claudio Tolomeo**, greco (150 d.C.) ** poligono di 120 lati = 3.14166 17 = 3 + 120 Zu Chongzhi, cinese (450 d.C.) 3.1415926 < < 3.1415927 6 decimali = 3. 1415926535 897932 16 decimali Al-Kashi*, persiano (1424) Franois Vite, francese (1593) = 3. 1415926535 8979323846 2643383279 50288 35 decimali Ludolph van Ceulen**, tedesco (1610) 2 2 2 = ... 2 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 + 2 John Wallis, inglese (1655) 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 = ... 2 1 3 3 5 5 7 7 9 ** Von der circle * al-Risla al-muiyya Leonhard Euler, svizzero (1748) 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 = 1 + + + + + ... 6 2 3 4 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 = 1 - + - + - + ... 32 3 5 7 9 11 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 = 1 + + + + + ... 90 2 3 4 5 Madhava*, indiano (1400) 1 1 1 1 1 = 1 - + - + - + ... 4 3 5 7 9 11 John Machin, inglese (1706) 1 1 = 4 arctan - arctan 5 239 * poi anche James Gregory, scozzese e Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, francese (1668) John von Neumann*, ungherese (1949) Peter Trueb*, svizzero (2016) = 3. ... 2037 decimali = 3. ... 22.5 mila miliardi di decimali !!! Sharma Suresh Kumar**, indiano (2015) Akira Haraguchi**, giapponese (2016) = 3. ... 70 030 decimali in 17 h 14 min = 3. ... 83 431 decimali in 16 h * calcolati (https://pi2e.ch) ** elencati (http://www.pi-world-ranking- list.com/index.php?page=lists&category=pi) A Bill for an act introducing a new mathematical truth and offered as a contribution to education to be used only by the State of Indiana free of cost by paying any royalties whatever on the same, provided it is accepted and adopted by the official action of the Legislature of 1897. Section 1 [...] Section 2 It is impossible to compute the area of a circle on the diameter as the linear unit without trespassing upon the area outside of the circle to the extent of including one-fifth more area than is contained within the circle's circumference, because the square on the diameter produces the side of a square which equals nine when the arc of ninety degrees equals eight. By taking the quadrant of the circle's circumference for the linear unit, we fulfill the requirements of both quadrature and rectification of the circle's circumference. Furthermore, it has revealed the ratio of the chord and arc of ninety degrees, which is as seven to eight, and also the ratio of the diagonal and one side of a square which is as ten to seven, disclosing the fourth important fact, that the ratio of the diameter and circumference is as five-fourths to four; and because of these facts and the further fact that the rule in present use fails to work both ways mathematically, it should be discarded as wholly wanting and misleading in its practical applications. Section 3 [...] Edward J. Goodwin 18/01/1897 (disegno di legge #246, Senato dell'Indiana) 13/02/1897 ("The Indianapolis News", pag. 11) Fun-Making In the Senate Yesterday Afternoon The Senate yesterday afternoon occupied Itself with House bills on second reading. The engrossment of a number of small bills was ordered, and the bill legalising the incorporation of Poneta, Wells county, was passed under suspension of the rules. Representative Record's (Taylor I. Record, n.d.A.) mathematical bill legalizing a formula for squaring the circle, was brought up and made fun of. The Senators made bad puns about It, ridiculed it and laughed over It. The fun lasted half an hour. Senator Hubbell said that It was not meet for the Senate, which was costing the State $250 a day, to waste its time in such frivolity. He said that in reading the leading newspapers of Chicago and the East, he found that the Indiana State Legislature had laid itself open to ridicule by the action already taken on the bill. He thought consideration of such a proportion was not dignified or worthy of the Senate. He moved the indefinite postponement of the bill, and the motion was carried. https://newspapers.library.in.gov/cgi- bin/indiana?a=d&d=INN18970213-01.1.11 http://www.agecon.purdue.edu/crd/Localgov/Seco nd%20Level%20pages/indiana_pi_bill.htm 4 4 3.2 5 p = = = d 1 decimale 2 1 2 e e q q F = k r costanti matematiche vs costanti fisiche valore & unit di misura precisione = 3.141592653... e = 2.718281828... 2 1 2 g m m F = r 2 2 2 2 2 cos d x - F = pR 2 1 4 e 0 k = 4 8 R p Q = L 6 vis F = Rv 2 5 1 2 1 d e 1 hc kT Q hc = t A - 4 1 d Q = T t A 5 4 3 2 2 15 k = h c 3 = 1.732050807... = 1.618033988... i e + 1 = 0 2 x x p 2 h = h = 6.62607004010-34 Js https://physics.nist.gov/cuu 2010: in vacanza verso Rimini 205/55 R16 d = diametro del cerchione (in) l = larghezza del pneumatico (mm) h = altezza del pneumatico (%l) 2.54 31.6 cm 2 d r = + h l = = 3.1415 4 decimali s 10 m N = 150 000 s = 2rN 298 km 1969: missione spaziale Apollo 11 verso la Luna memoria: 2 kB RAM, 36 kB ROM computer: f = 2 MHz https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/apollo/apollo11 http://www.ibiblio.org/apollo/listings/FP8/FP8.aea.html 1969: missione spaziale Apollo 11 verso la Luna 8 decimali 1969: missione spaziale Apollo 11 verso la Luna computer: f = 2 MHz computer: f = 2.6 GHz 2019: missione terrestre Maurizio verso il PoliMi memoria: 2 kB RAM, 36 kB ROM memoria: 16 GB RAM, 512 GB ROM r = 21.7109 km (= 145 UA = 20 light hour) p = 2r = ... = 3.1415926535 89 = 3.14 p = 430106 km p = 43 m 12 decimali https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov 1969: missione spaziale Apollo 11 verso la Luna 1977: missione spaziale Voyager 1 verso l'ignoto... = 3. 1415926535 89793 1973: Global Positioning System (GPS) "Relativistic effect in the GPS are far too large to ignore" costanza della velocit della luce relativit della simultaneit effetto Doppler shift gravitazionale della frequenza dilatazione dei tempi termini di aggiustamento dell'orbita c = 299 792 458 m/s t = 1 ms http://www.aapt.org/doorway/tgru/articles/ashbyarticle.pdf 15 decimali 24-32 satelliti x = ct = 300 km alcuni link https://www.focus.it/scienza/scienze/ecco-perche-non-possiamo-fare-a-meno- del-pi-greco https://www.wired.it/scienza/lab/2017/03/14/pi-greco-day-circonda/ http://m.huffingtonpost.it/2016/03/14/pi-greco-10-cose-sapere-costante- matematica_n_9457358.html https://www.scientificast.it/2016/03/22/quanto-lo-facciamo-lungo-sto-pi-greco/ http://nova.ilsole24ore.com/progetti/il-mondo-che-ruota-attorno-al-pi-greco/ https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/edu/news/2016/3/16/how-many-decimals-of-pi-do- we-really-need/ https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/how-much-pi-do-you-need/ http://scienzaemusica.blogspot.it/2013/03/laffascinante-storia-del-pi- greco.html

20/02/2019 Presentazione per la Cogestione del Liceo Volta di Milano

http://www.mauriziozani.it/wp/?p=8329

About Maurizio Zani

Physics Researcher and Rector's Delegate for Student rights and contribution at Politecnico di Milano

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