Michel Planat, Raymond Aschheim, Marcelo M. Amaral, Fang Fang, Klee Irwin (2020)
We find that the degeneracies and many peculiarities of the DNA genetic code may be described thanks to two closely related (fivefold symmetric) finite groups.
The first group has signature G=Z5⋊H where H=Z2.S4≅2O is isomorphic to the binary octahedral group 2O and S4 is the symmetric group on four letters/bases. The second group has signature G=Z5⋊GL(2,3) and points out a threefold symmetry of base pairings. For those groups, the representations for the 22 conjugacy classes of G are in one-to-one correspondence with the multiplets encoding the proteinogenic amino acids. Additionally, most of the 22 characters of G attached to those representations are informationally complete. The biological meaning of these coincidences is discussed.
Klee Irwin is an author, researcher and entrepreneur who now dedicates the majority of his time to Quantum Gravity Research (QGR), a non-profit research institute that he founded in 2009. The mission of the organization is to discover the geometric first-principles unification of space, time, matter, energy, information, and consciousness.
As the Director of QGR, Klee manages a dedicated team of mathematicians and physicists in developing emergence theory to replace the current disparate and conflicting physics theories. Since 2009, the team has published numerous papers and journal articles analyzing the fundamentals of physics.
Klee is also the founder and owner of Irwin Naturals, an award-winning global natural supplement company providing alternative health and healing products sold in thousands of retailers across the globe including Whole Foods, Vitamin Shoppe, Costco, RiteAid, WalMart, CVS, GNC and many others. Irwin Naturals is a long time supporter of Vitamin Angels, which aims to provide lifesaving vitamins to mothers and children at risk of malnutrition thereby reducing preventable illness, blindness, and death and creating healthier communities.
Outside of his work in physics, Klee is active in supporting students, scientists, educators, and founders in their aim toward discovering solutions to activate positive change in the world. He has supported and invested in a wide range of people, causes and companies including Change.org, Upworthy, Donors Choose, Moon Express, Mayasil, the X PRIZE Foundation, and Singularity University where he is an Associate Founder.