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B-GL-304-003/TS-002 OPERATIONAL TRAINING VOLUME 3 PART 2 RANGE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE (BILINGUAL) WARNING Although not classified this publication or part of it may be exempt from disclosure to the public under the Access to Information Act. All elements of information contained therein must be closely scrutinized to ascertain whether or not the publication or part of it may be released. STOCK REPRINT: All changes incorporated up to and including change 1 dated 1990-08-27 Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff OPI: DLOTR 1989-05-05 Ch - 1990-08-27 LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES Insert latest changed pages; dispose of superseded pages in accordance with applicable orders. NOTE The portion of the text affected by the latest change is indicated by a black vertical line in the margin of the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by miniature pointing hands or black vertical lines. Dates of issue for original and changed pages are: Original ........................0 ................ 1989-05-05 Ch ..............7................... Ch.................................1 ................ 1990-08-27 Ch ..............8................... Ch.................................2 ................ Ch ..............9................... Ch.................................3 ................ Ch ..............10................. Ch.................................4 ................ Ch ..............11................. Ch.................................5 ................ Ch ..............12................. Ch.................................6 ................ Ch ..............13................. Ch.................................14 .............. Zero in Change No. Column indicates an original page. The use of the letter E or F indicates the change is in English or French only. Total number of pages in this publication is 180 consisting of the following: Page No. Change No. Change No. Title .............................................1 6-1 to 6-11/6-12 ....................... 0 A..................................................1 7-1 to 7-3/7-8 ........................... 0 i, ii ...............................................0 8-1 to 8-7/8-8 ........................... 0 iii .................................................1 9-1/9-2...................................... 0 iv to xii ........................................0 10-1 to 10-4.............................. 0 1-1 to 1-10...................................0 11-1 to 11-30............................ 0 2-1 to 2-6.....................................0 12-1 to 12-14............................ 0 2-7, 2-8........................................1 12A-1, 12A2 ............................ 0 2-8A/2-8B ...................................1 12B-1 to 12B-4 ........................ 0 2-9 to 2-13/2-14 ..........................0 12C-1 to 12C-6 ........................ 0 3-1 to 3-32...................................0 12D-1 to 12D-4........................ 0 3A-1 to 3A-3/3A-4......................0 12E-1 to 12E-4......................... 0 4-1, 4-2........................................0 13-1 to 13-5/13-6 ..................... 0 5-1 to 5-6 0 Contact Officer: DLOTR 4-3 © 1989 DND Canada FOREWORD 1. B-GL-304-003/TS-002, Operational Training, Volume 3, Part 2, Range Construction and Maintenance, is issued on authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff. 2. This publication is effective on receipt and supersedes Chapters 13 to 17 of B-GL-304- 003/TS-001, Operational Training, Volume 3, Ranges and Training Safety. 3. Chapters 1 to 12 of B-GL-304-003/TS-001 have been included in Part 1, Training Safety, published as B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1. Part 3, Range Clearance Handbook, has the NDID number B-GL-304-003/TS-003. 4. Suggestions for change should be forwarded through normal channels to National Defence Headquarters, Attention: Director Land Operations, Training and Resources (DLOTR 4). RECORD OF CHANGES Identification of Change Change No. Date Date Entered Signature CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL Section 1 - Introduction Scope Authority Aim Planning Section 2 - Establishing Ranges Setting Up a Range Current Operational Requirement Future Operational Requirement Section 3 - Administration and Control General Responsibilities Range Development Plan CHAPTER 2 - INDOOR RANGES Section 1 - Standard 25 m Indoor Range General Building Dimensions Protection Bullet Catcher Position of Targets Firing Points Lighting Paintwork Ventilation Housekeeping Noise Reduction Waiting Area Access Storeroom Modern Technology Range Inside an Appropriate Building Penetration of 22-inch Ammunition Section 2 - AFV Mini-Range General Site Danger Area Signboards - Flags Firing Point Mockup Targets CHAPTER 3 - CLASSIFICATION/SHOOT TO LIVE RANGES Section 1 - General Introduction Section 2 - 25 m Outdoor Ranges Introduction Site Selection Types of Range TYPE 1 - RANGE WITH NO DANGER AREA Construction Datum Line Stop Butt Wall Bullet Catcher Target Slot Target Trench Ricochet Pit Firing Points Wing Walls Range with Natural Stop Butt Position of Targets Target Store Troop Shelter TYPE 2 - RANGE WITH DANGER AREA General Site Stop Butt Section 3 - 300, 600 or 1000 m Standard Classification Range General Determining the Dimensions of the Danger Area Adjoining Ranges Reduction in Danger Area Hollow Site Stop Butts Target Numbers Gallery Mantlet Target Frame Firing Points Telephones Target Store and Workshop Danger Flags and Warning Signs Troop Shelter Latrine Facilities Remote Control Targets Section 4 - Non-standard Classification Ranges Austere Range Range with Deflectors Section 5 - Individual/Team Battle Shooting Range General Site Targets Communication Control Tower Annex A - Important Safety and Construction Dimensions Standard Classification Range CHAPTER 4 - GRENADE RANGE Live Grenade Range Throwing Bay Communications Maintenance CHAPTER 5 - GPMG/HMG RANGES General Site Control Posts Range Signs Shelter and Target Store Types of Range TYPE A: STATIONARY POSITION Firing Positions Danger Area Arcs of Fire TYPE B: MOBILE POSITION USING VEHICLES Site Danger Area Arcs of Fire Control Tower CHAPTER 6 - TANK AND ANTI-TANK RANGES Section 1 - General Introduction Section 2 - Hand-held Anti-tank Range Choosing the Location Firing Positions Danger Area Flags Targets Personnel - Ammunition Section 3 - TOW Range General Danger Area Flags Site Firing Positions Communications Bunkers Shelter Storage Building Arcs of Fire Danger Area Section 4 - Tank Battle Run General Site Danger Area Targets CHAPTER 7 - INDIRECT FIRE RANGE Section 1 - General Introduction Section 2 - 60 mm Mortar Ground Danger Area Firing Point Section 3 - 81 mm Mortar General Danger Area Section 4 - 120 mm Mortar To be published later Section 5 - 14.5 mm and 25 mm Mortar Trainer Ranges General Construction Firing Positions Danger Area Section 6 - 81 mm Mortar Pneumatic Trainer Ground Flags Section 7 - 105 mm and 155 mm Artillery Range Ground Danger Area Firing Positions CHAPTER 8 - AIR DEFENCE RANGE Section 1 - General Introduction Targets Communication Section 2 - Skeet Range General Danger Area Layout and Adjustment Trap Houses Section 3 - Small Arms in an Air Defence Role General Arcs of Fire Ground Section 4 - 40 mm Gun: Boffin Ground Arcs of Fire and Flags Section 5 - Blowpipe Ground-to-air-missile Ground Firing Point Control Tower Ammunition Point Other Facilities Arcs of Fire and Flags CHAPTER 9 - AIR WEAPON RANGES Authority Reference Book CHAPTER 10 - MISCELLANEOUS RANGES Section 1 - Demolition Range General Ground Types of Range and Building Section 2 - FIBUA To be published later CHAPTER 11 - RANGE SIGNS AND TARGETS Section 1 - Range Signs General Location of Signboards Range Boundary Signs Range Keep-out Signs No Trespassing Signs Barriers and Barrier Signs Fence Range Boundaries Arc of Fire Markers Flags Section 2 - Range Targets and Accessories Targets and Accessories for Gallery Ranges 25 m Range Targets and Accessories Targets and Accessories for Individual and Team Combat Ranges Targets and Accessories for AFV and Anti-tank Weapons 6.5 mm Ammunition Target AFV Miniature Range Targets Air Defence Targets CHAPTER 12 - DANGER AREAS, AUTHORIZATION AND RANGE INSPECTION Section 1 - Danger Areas for Hand-held Weapon Systems - NATO Introduction Aim Definitions Determination of Danger Area - General Hazard Topography Meteorological Conditions Ballistic Properties of the Projectile Construction of a Weapon Danger Area Section 2 - Inspection and Authorization of Land Ranges and Training Areas General Inspection of Land Ranges and Training Areas Authorization of Land Ranges and Training Areas Inspection and Authorization of Cadet Ranges Responsibilities Annex A - Range/Training Area Authorization Form Annex B - Range Control Agency Check List Annex C - Land Range Inspection Operations Check List Annex D - Training Area Inspection Check List Annex E - Land Range Inspection Administrative Check List CHAPTER 13 - RANGE STANDING ORDERS General Use of the Ranges by Other Countries Scope Range Standing Orders - General Command and Control Administration and Logistics Safety LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE 2-1 Bullet Catcher: Tilted Steel Plate 2-2 Double Curtain 2-3 Curved Metal Plate 2-4 Combined Bullet Catcher and Target Stand 2-5 Laser Warning Sign 2-6 Leopard C1 Scale Range 3-1 A 25 Metre Range with No Danger Area 3-2 Natural Stop Butt 3-3 Gallery Range Template, 7.62 m 3-4 Danger Area Template, 5.56 mm 3-5 Danger Areas for Adjoining Ranges 3-6 Line of Sight and Possible Trajectories 3-7 Effect of a Hollow Site 3-8 Bullet Catcher 3-9 Marker's Gallery (Concrete) 3-10 Formation of Scoops on Mantlet 3-11 Hythe Pattern Target Frame 3-12 Mechanical Target 3-13 300 m Range with Deflectors 3-14 Team Battle Shooting Range 4-1 Grenade Throwing Bay 5-1 Rudimentary Machine Gun Trench 5-2 Machine Gun Trench 6-1 Anti-tank Firing Bay (TPT) 6-2 Anti-tank Firing Bay (HEAT) 6-3a Range with Fixed Firing Position 6-3b Range with Fixed Firing Position 6-4 Danger Area 7-1 A Good OP 7-2 14.5 mm and 25 mm Miniature Range, Scale 1:10 8-1 Layout of a Skeet Range 8-2 Deflection Board 8-3 Sketch of a Blowpipe Missile Range 10-1 Demolition Range 10-2 Destruction Area Layout 11-1 Range Boundary 11-2 Keep Out Sign 11-3 Défense de passer 11-4 No Trespassing 11-5 Barrier Sign 11-6 Arc of Fire Markers 11-7 1.2 m and 1.8 m Targets Used for Rapid Fire and Application Practice 11-8 12/59 Target for Snapshooting 11-9 Falling Steel Plate Target 11-10 Figure Targets 11-11 Screen for GPMG 11-12 Classification Range Target Marking Devices 11-13 25 Metre Range Target Frame 11-14 25 Metre Targets for Application and Grouping Practices 11-15 25 Metre Targets for Fire and Movement Practice 11-16 (Not available) 11-17 Grouping Ring and Grouping Rectangle for 25 Metre Ranges 11-18 25 Metre LAR Zeroing Screen 11-19 Pistol Grouping Target 11-20 Pistol Grouping Rectangle 11-21 Wheeled Target 11-22 Remote-controlled Rail Mounted Lighted Target 11-23 Pop-up Target 11-24 Tank Turret Target 11-25 Head-on Tank Target 11-26 Broadside Tank Targets 11-27 Soft-skinned Troop Carrier 11-28 Anti-tank Gun 11-29 Machine Gun Post 11-30 Tank Pop-up and Moving Target 11-31 Permanent Tank Target 11-32 Target at the 15 Metre Range 11-33 Outdoor Targets for 6.5 mm Tracer Ammunition 11-34 Target for AFV Miniature Range 11-35 Aim Recorder 12-1 Construction of a Theoretical Danger Zone 12-2 Construction of a Practical Danger Area LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE 3-1 Dimensions of Danger Area for a 5.56 mm Gallery Type Classification Range CHAPTER 1 GENERAL SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION SCOPE 1. B-GL-304-003/TS-002 deals with the construction and maintenance of various types of ranges. It supersedes Chapters 13 to 17 of B-GL-304-003/TS-001, Operational Training, Range and Training Safety. 2. The information in this publication relates to range planning, layout and maintenance. 3. The construction and maintenance standards presented in this volume correspond in many cases to a minimum requirement. Certain additional arrangements may therefore be made by the authorities on site in order to improve facilities. AUTHORITY 4. This volume will be used as a basic reference for range construction and maintenance. In case of conflict with other publications or instructions, reference must be made to NDHQ for resolution. AIM 5. The primary aim of this volume is to present basic standards in order to achieve a degree of national standardization in range construction and layout in the various units and bases across Canada. 6. These basic standards can also be used as points of departure for engineers when developing plans for future ranges. In addition, those responsible for maintenance can refer to this volume for information on the maintenance and inspections that have to be performed. PLANNING 7. Proper planning for more rational training areas is necessary at all decision-making levels. Training ground is becoming more and more costly and good areas are increasingly difficult to find given the expansion of urban areas. 8. In this context, good planning will use the concept of adjoining ranges, where the same danger area is shared. For example, ground that is unsuitable for training purposes, such as a swamp, could be used as a danger area. SECTION 2 ESTABLISHING RANGES SETTING UP A RANGE 1. The decision to set up or modify a range is a matter for the base concerned, its parent command and NDHQ. Weapon specialists and tactical support units may be consulted, during the planning stage, for information or advice on weapon characteristics or tactical considerations peculiar to their classification. To this end, this section contains a checklist of factors to be considered in the siting and construction of ranges. 2. The first step in the planning stage involves studying a map with the scaled template. This way no time will be wasted considering inappropriate sites. Once the sites are selected on the map, they are subjected to a detailed inspection. A site plan or contour map is then prepared showing all ground connected with the project. The length of the range, the firing points, the targets and the danger area boundaries must be clearly indicated. If a printed map to the scale of 1:25 000 Is not available, an accurate contour drawing to the scale of 1:25 000 containing all topographical details should be used. 3. Where applicable, the initial plan should contain information and recommendations on the following points, bearing in mind the type of range and local conditions: a. the name and location of the range; b. the units that will be using the range; c. type of range (eg, gallery, 25-metre, field firing, AFV, etc); d. details of range construction: (1) length of the range in metres (taken from the firing point furthest away from the targets), (2) the number and type of target frames or trenches to be provided and their centre line spacing, (3) the number of target frames or trenches already in existence, (4) description of the stop butts: (a) composition of soil (eg, clay, loam, sand, etc), (b) length along crest, (c) thickness at base, and (d) above-ground height on the butt, (5) nature and description of the marker's gallery, (6) if the distance between a stop butt and a target is 25 m or more, it must be decided whether this space should be used for a 25 m range, (7) formation of firing points, (8) the communication system to be used; in the case of the telephone, establishing whether the cable should be buried or laid above ground (telephone cables on all new ranges should be buried), (9) inclusion of workshops if necessary, (10) inclusion of a target store if necessary, (11) inclusion of a troop shelter if necessary, (12) inclusion of latrines if necessary, (13) inclusion of a water supply system if necessary, and (14) inclusion of heat and lighting if necessary; e. as regards safety precautions, danger areas for the weapons used and ground features, the following factors should be considered: (1) the maximum length and width of the danger area including the ground in front of and behind the targets. In all cases the danger area boundaries shall be marked on the maps or plans accompanying this report, (2) ground features behind the targets height, slope, etc, (3) ground features in front of the targets and slope of ground in relation to the targets. The line of sight between the proposed firing points and the targets must be clear; if it is not, the appropriate action must be determined to ensure that it is cleared, (4) it must be determined whether the danger area is free of buildings, railways, public roads, pathways, etc, and whether it is used by hikers, picnickers, etc, and (5) it must be determined whether arrangements can be made or proposed to prevent people from entering the danger area during firing practice. All details should be given and the position of sentries, flags, notices, etc, should be marked on a map; and f. questions relating to property ownership, public roads, right-of-way, etc., must receive special consideration: (1) the need to construct new roads to provide access to the ranges, (2) the need to divert or stop traffic, (3) existing grazing, haymaking or woodcutting rights, (4) if land needs to be purchased or leased, certain details have to be obtained such as the probable cost per acre, the names of the owners and the nature of their tenure, (5) whether or not suitable Range Standing Orders exist. If they do, an up-to- date copy shall be submitted with the report, and (6) determining whether or not the land belongs to DND. If it does not, the possibility of purchasing or renting it or simply obtaining firing rights should be considered. NOTES 1. Inquiries must be made in such a way as not to commit DND. 2. The points listed in paragraph 3f relate not only to the danger area but also to the range itself. 4. Those responsible for developing the plans should state their opinions on the land under consideration in their report. The latter should also include a list of the weapons to be used on the proposed range. 5. The units or bases should submit their plans to NDHQ for approval through Command Headquarters (CHQ). 6. Once a range has been set up or reconstructed, a base SO Ranges and a CE representative from the command or base should make an inspection unless otherwise directed by CHQ. They should certify that the range is safe by completing the range authorization form described in Chapter 12. 7. The date on which use of a range is begun or terminated must be communicated to NDHQ through CHQ. When a range is closed, the reason must be stated. CURRENT OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENT 8. All components of the CF have a responsibility to maintain a high standard of training to meet their assigned roles. A significant portion of this training concerns the proficient use of a variety of weapon systems ranging from individual soldiers and their rifles to sophisticated air- to-ground weaponry. It is mandatory that members of the Forces constantly exercise themselves in the firing of live munitions. To allow this activity and, at the same time, to protect the public from injury or loss of life, range areas must be set aside for the exclusive use of the CF. 9. In order to meet an ever-changing threat it is necessary to develop, improve and test new weapons and weapon systems. Testing and evaluation of these systems must be done under rigorous and realistic field conditions; it requires the use of extensive land areas. FUTURE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENT 10. Every effort must be made to minimize the amount of land required for current operations, thereby minimizing the contamination and hence the danger to the public. The future requirement for ranges and training areas cannot be foreseen in detail; hence certain areas already contaminated must be used before virgin ones. SECTION 3 ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL GENERAL 1. The aim of this section is to summarize DND policy with respect to the administration and control of ranges and training areas. 2. DNDP 56 contains broad policy guidance and direction particularly as it pertains to control of civil access and protection of the public from injury or death. 3. Detailed policy and procedures governing the day-to-day operation of tactical ranges and training areas, range and training area safety, and resource management are contained in applicable references. RESPONSIBILITIES 4. NDHQ is responsible for: a. establishing an overall policy with respect to the administration and control of DND ranges and training areas. Emphasis will be placed on developing principles and guidelines for use by commanders and senior staff in negotiations with the civil sector on access to ranges and training areas and the DND initiative in civil access control; b. maintaining current a compendium of ranges and training areas; c. maintaining a catalogue of DND ranges and training areas; d. acquiring or disposing of DND-owned or occupied ranges and training areas; e. assisting commands and bases in negotiating civil access to ranges and training areas and approving or disallowing them access; f. reviewing annual Range and Training Area Advisory Committee minutes for ranges and training areas and providing NDHQ representation at the annual Range and Training Area Advisory Committee meeting; g. monitoring compliance with terms of disposal of former DND ranges and training areas or negotiating appropriate measures for public safety and protection of DND liability of former DND-owned ranges and training areas; h. periodically reviewing range development plans; and j. periodically monitoring command arrangements for maintaining accurate historical records of ranges and training area usage (types and quantities of ammunition fired). 5. Commands are responsible for: a. applying established NDHQ range and training policy on ranges and training areas falling within their jurisdiction; b. providing on an annual basis, revisions to the compendium of ranges and training areas; c. providing on an "as required" basis, but at least once every five years, revisions to the catalogue of DND ranges and training areas; d. assisting bases in negotiating civil access to ranges and training areas and forwarding to NDHQ recommendations for civil access; e. providing a command representative at Base Range and Training Area Advisory Committee meetings and forwarding a copy of the minutes of that Advisory Committee meeting to NDHQ together with command comment; f. periodically reviewing and updating command range development plans; g. directing the compilation and maintenance of accurate historical records with respect to usage of tactical ranges and training areas; and h. directing the classification of dangerous areas on ranges and training areas into Type 1, Type 2 or Type 3, based on research and historical records. 6. Base and unit commanders are responsible for: a. the application of established DND policy with respect to DND ranges and training areas under their jurisdiction; b. providing, on an annual basis, revisions to the compendium of ranges and training areas; c. providing on an "as required" basis, but at least once every five years, a revision to the catalogue of ranges and training areas; d. controlling civil access to the ranges and training areas in accordance with NDHQ policy; e. negotiating requests from the civil sector for access and forwarding recommendations for such access to command; f. establishing a Range and Traning Area Advisory Committee, conducting an annual meeting of the Advisory Committee and forwarding to command a copy of the minutes of that meeting; g. compiling and maintaining accurate records of range usage; h. classifying dangerous areas as Type 1, Type 2 or Type 3 based on research and historical records; j. preparing a Range Development Plan to be included in the Base Development Book; and k. conducting a public information program with NDHQ (DAOES) assistance as appropriate to the specific range or training area and the ease of public access to that area. Particular attention is to be paid to the education of children. RANGE DEVELOPMENT PLAN 7. A Range Development Plan: a. allows changes to be introduced in an orderly fashion as new weapons enter into service and as the use of a particular range changes, particularly with respect to impact, manoeuvre and danger areas; b. provides a sense of direction for resource management; and c. provides guidance for controlled civil access. 8. In developing and furthering a RDP, every effort should be made to: a. fully use existing contaminated areas for impact areas before allowing new areas to be contaminated; b. consolidate existing impact areas; and c. as far as possible, site impact areas on ground which will facilitate future range clearance operations. 9. Range Development Plans shall be prepared for all ranges and training areas. When formulating the Range Development Plan, input should be sought from the parent command of range users. The Range Development Plan will be a key document for the Range and Training Area Advisory Committee and for the effective administration of the range. 10. The Range Development Plan shall form an integral part of the Base Development Book and should cover most of the following: a. history of the range to include known impact areas and known and suspected contamination; b. full details on all active range areas; c. information on topography, fauna and vegetation; d. details on any restrictions such as leases, etc; and e. proposed development or expansion, including the timetable for such development. 11. In addition, base and unit commanders should examine the need for one or both of the following supporting plans: a. Resource Management Plan. A Resource Management Plan will allow harvesting and resource extraction to be directed to best advantage to DND, including both current use of the area and its future development. b. Environmental Management Plan. An Environmental Management Plan will provide the vehicle for a well-reasoned approach to preserving the environment and ecological balance of an area without seriously constraining its use for military purposes. The advice of environmental/ecological specialists should be sought in these matters. While defence primacy of an area must be maintained, environmental/ecological considerations can usually be accommodated. CHAPTER 2 INDOOR RANGES SECTION 1 STANDARD 25 M INDOOR RANGE GENERAL 1. This type of range should be adopted wherever possible. Besides the fact that it neutralizes the need for a danger area outside the building, this range can be used at any time because of the availability of electric lighting. 2. This section focuses first and foremost on standard ranges. The information not relating to standard ranges may be used as a guide when, for various reasons, it is not possible to adopt the standard type of range. 3. The specifications given are those for ranges meeting the standards for .22 in, 6.5 mm, 9 mm and .38 calibre ammunition. 4. Designs for future indoor ranges will have to be developed with modern equipment such as the cinetarget in mind. These ranges should also be provided with first-rate ventilation systems and offer an appreciable reduction in noise. BUILDING DIMENSIONS 5. The length of the standard range must be 25 m from the firing points to the targets. The minimum permissible distance between a firing point and the targets is 10 m. 6. When no other site is available and it is desired to construct a range shorter than 15 m, additional protection must be provided such as a Linatex curtain behind the targets. 7. A waiting area 6 to 10 m deep, where spectators and waiting firers can sit, must be provided behind the firing points. The total length of the building will therefore be about 35 m. 8. The width of the range must be at least 8 m. The space required for a firer is: a. 1.5 m between rifles and pistols; b. 4.0 m between 84 mm anti-tank guns using 6.5 mm gallery ammunition; and c. firing positions on the left and right flanks must be at least 1 m from the walls. 9. If possible, the height of the building should be 2.75 m at the eaves. It should not be less than 2.5 m. PROTECTION 10. Stop Butts. For standard ranges the back wall acting as a stop butt must be able to stop bullets over an area 4 m high by a width extending 2 m beyond the flank line of fire. If that is not possible it will be necessary to protect the ceiling and side walls within the angles referred to in paragraph 12 below. The above specifications may be reduced according to the length of the range. A height of 2.5 m and a width extending 1.2 m beyond the flank line of fire would be suitable for a 15 m range. There must be additional protection behind the targets, however. Such protection often takes the form of a 13 mm steel plate that is 2 m high and has a width extending at least 0.3 m beyond the flank lines of fire. The wooden butts must have a thickness providing the same protection as does 13 mm steel. Joints must be offset from each other to prevent bullets from passing through. 11. Roof. The portion of the roof within an angle of 125 mils from the line of sight must be adequately protected. Protection shall take the form of a 13 mm steel plate or equivalent fixed to the underside of the roof trusses. To prevent backsplash this plate must be covered with 2.5 cm of timber. 12. Side Walls: a. A standard range must have as few doors and windows as possible in front of the firing points. If there are doors or windows within an angle of 90 mils from the line of fire they must be protected to prevent direct hits from passing through them. As with the ceiling, a 13 mm steel plate or equivalent covered with 2.5 cm timber must be provided. b. The same protective measures apply to all wall sections inside the 90 mil angle. 13. Steel Deflectors: a. The continuous pounding of bullets results in the disintegration of the masonry or timberwork and renders ceiling light and plumbing fixtures useless. Consequently it will be necessary to install a 13 mm steel deflector covered with 2.5 cm thick timber. It must be positioned at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees from the angle of elevation. The length varies according to need. b. Vertical deflectors may be used on the side walls to protect certain pieces of equipment. They shall extend at least 60 cm above the targets. c. A 10 cm high deflector positioned vertically at the foot of the targets and extending from one side wall to the other is required for protection from ricochets off the ground. It should be composed of 13 mm thick steel and 2.5 cm thick timber. BULLET CATCHER 14. To prevent backsplash and fragments it Is necessary to install a bullet catcher. 15. Besides traditional methods such as logs and sand, which require considerable maintenance and create more flying dust, there are now other types: a. Metal plates 13 mm thick installed at an angle of 800 mils. These plates are filled with sand. See Figure 2-1. b. A single or double Linatex curtain with an additional piece of timber at the stop butt. This method is not recommended with .38 wad cutter ammunition. See Figure 2-2. c. A metal plate curved at the base. See Figure 2-3. 16. A combination of various methods may be used along with the Linatex to reduce noise, ricochets and fragmentation while at the same time providing resistance. 17. If a sand-filled bullet catcher is used, it is desirable to add 50 per cent sawdust to the sand in the part where the bullets penetrate. In addition the sand must be removed or cleaned after every 30 000 rounds. 18. A study has revealed that sand is the best expedient since it is both economical and safe; however, when this type of bullet catcher is employed, a more powerful exhaust system will be installed to alleviate the dust created. Figure 2-1 Bullet Catcher: Figure 2-2 Double Curtain Tilted Steel Plate Figure 2-3 Curved Metal Plate POSITION OF TARGETS 19. Frames or panels must be provided on which to fix the targets. The frame has 15 cm height and it is fixed at 5 cm from the deflector under the targets. The line of sight must be at the same level as the barrel of the weapon used. FIRING POINTS 20. The number of firing points varies with the weapon used as specified in paragraph 8 above and in B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, Article 305, paragraph 24.a. 21. As far as possible, approved movable screens should be installed so that the distance between firers can be reduced to 1 m in the case of pistol shooting, for example. Screens must conform to revised drawing S-16-1003-14. 22. All ranges should be provided with movable firing platforms. They should be 2.5 m long, 1 m wide, 50 cm high in front and 30 cm high at the back. 23. If possible, a trench should be constructed. It should be 1 m deep and be located at the 25 m firing point. 24. There is to be no exposed metal, other than approved stop butts, forward on the firing point. LIGHTING 25. Daytime. When possible, targets and firing points should be lit up by means of skylights in the roof or side windows. Firers should not be exposed to the direct rays of the sun. Where there are windows in the side walls of the building these should be about 1.5 m above the ground and in line with the firing points. 26. Nighttime. Artificial lighting is necessary for night firing. It is the most reliable way to obtain constant lighting. For this type of shooting it may be necessary to reduce or cut out natural lighting. 27. Electric wires and electric devices must be optimally protected. They shall be placed behind steel deflectors as stipulated in paragraph 13. 28. A rheostat-assisted lighting system should be provided for all new installations so that day or night firing can be simulated. 29. One reflector spotlight bulb is the recommended minimum for each target. The light must be installed so as to keep glare to a minimum. PAINTWORK 30. The stop butt area must be covered with a coat of flat black paint to reduce reflections. The same applies to other areas that may produce reflections or glare. All shiny finishes on the range should be avoided. VENTILATION 31. During firing practice a considerable amount of smoke and fumes is given off by the ammunition. It is essential, therefore, that first-rate ventilation be provided and be efficient enough to perform satisfactorily to meet health and safety requirements. Fresh air should enter behind the firing points and leave near the stop butt so that firers breathe as little contaminated air as possible. HOUSEKEEPING 32. In order to protect the health of personnel exposed to lead dust and fumes found in CF indoor firing ranges, the following housekeeping measures must be taken: a. Floors, walls and firing platforms shall be cleaned after each firing day. Wet methods or a vacuum will be used. During clean-up, personnel must wear approved respiratory protective equipment (NSN 4240-21-899-8588-Respirators, Toxic Dust) and disposable coveralls (NSN 8415-21-884-3068). b. The use of indoor firing ranges for storage of excess supplies like tables or chairs is prohibited. c. The ventilation shall be activated whenever the range is in use. Furthermore, the ventilation system shall be in operation during cleanup and remain in operation for at least one hour after clean-up is terminated. d. Table tops and firing platforms shall be constructed of smooth, impervious material to permit thorough cleaning of surfaces immediately after range use. e. The use of cloth bedding and mattresses for firing surfaces is forbidden. Only nonabsorbent, easily cleanable rest pads are authorized. f. A sign warning of a potential lead hazard shall be posted in all indoor ranges. NOISE REDUCTION 33. An adequate layer of soundproofing should be installed wherever possible to bring about an appreciable reduction in noise levels. 34. A Linatex curtain behind the targets will also help to diminish noise. WAITING AREA 35. The waiting area is the area specifically designated to allow the next relay of firers to assemble and get ready. 36. It is preferable that this area be in a separate room with direct access to the rear of the firing area. If the waiting area must be located in the same room, the two areas should be separated by a partition with a single opening. This opening should be the width of a door and provide access to the rear of the firing area. ACCESS 37. The doors providing access to the range in front of the firing points should be used almost exclusively as emergency exits. 38. These doors should open and lock from the inside only. 39. The range rules should stipulate that the Range Safety Officer personally checks the locks before firing practice is begun. STOREROOM 40. Each range should have a storeroom for equipment such as targets and the cinetarget. 41. This room may be located in front of the firing points but must conform to the specifications indicated in paragraphs 37 to 39 above. 42. This room should have a second exit for personnel safety and to conform to fire safety regulations. MODERN TECHNOLOGY 43. Modern technology can bring about major improvements to new ranges. It would be desirable to use this technology especially in the areas of safety, lighting, ventilation, noise reduction and upgrading of equipment. RANGES INSIDE AN APPROPRIATE BUILDING 44. A range may also be set up in a gymnasium, drill hall or any other appropriate building. 45. To allow the building to perform its normal functions, the targets and firing points should ordinarily be movable. 46. Figure 2-4 shows a combined bullet catcher and target stand for .22 in. ammunition fire. 47. The general principles and the principles relating to safety are the same as for standard ranges. Because of the safety problems that may arise, however, it is not advisable to set up this type of range. 48. In view of the foregoing, NDHQ would be very reluctant to grant a permit for this type of range. PENETRATION OF 22-INCH AMMUNITION 49. Although new ranges must be constructed to handle 9 mm calibre ammunition, some existing ranges can take only .22 ammunition. 50. The power of the various types of .22 calibre ammunition varies considerably according to the manufacturer. Figure 2-4 Combined Bullet Catcher and Target Stand 51. The materials listed below, in the thicknesses indicated, withstand direct hits from .22 calibre ammunition: a. 11 cm of brick or concrete covered by a 5 cm thick plank; b. 30 cm of earth or sand between 5 cm thick wooden panels; c. 15 cm of gravel between 5 cm thick wooden panels; d. 7.5 cm of shingle, pebbles or granite between 5 cm thick wooden panels; e. a 3 mm steel plate covered by 2.5 cm thick planking; and f. 18 cm of hard timber. SECTION 2 AFV MINI-RANGE GENERAL 1. Miniature ranges for armoured vehicles are now seeing the use of a laser firing technique. This type of range differs from the others, therefore, in that it does not require a stop butt or a bullet catcher as such. 2. B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, Chapter 6, Section 4 and Chapter 12, and CFTO C-02-040- 002/TS-001 provide details on laser safety and laser hazards. SITE 3. Miniature ranges are normally located inside buildings, although there are a few ranges located outdoors. 4. Any building large enough to accommodate a mockup or the equipment is acceptable. Thus it might be a lecture room or hangar. 5. The site chosen must allow armoured vehicles to enter, ie the doors must be large enough and the floor strong enough. 6. Neither the ground nor the walls should have a surface that reflects the light. All shiny objects such as stones, windows and metal objects must be removed from the range before firing begins. When the walls are painted, a flat finish should be used. 7. If a Class III laser is used indoors, the room must be without windows and all doors must be shut. In addition there must be a light or a sound system to indicate that the laser is in operation. 8. Whether the range is indoors or outdoors, it must have a wall or fence to indicate its boundaries. Signs can also be placed where there is no wall. 9. As far as possible, outdoor ranges should be flat. One should never have an ascending angle of elevation. DANGER AREA 10. There is no danger area as there is for the other types of range. Measures must be taken, however, to ensure that no one is exposed to the laser beams. A screen must be located behind the targets to stop the laser beams. A butt, wall or any other kind of screen could be used for the purpose. SIGNBOARDS - FLAGS 11. As with the other range types, appropriate flags must be used. 12. Special signboards must be placed around the range. See Figure 2-5 for a base symbol example. Figure 12-1 in B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1 also shows some signboards. FIRING POINT 13. A white line must indicate the spot where the AFV should be positioned so that the same firing distance is maintained, although the position may vary according to the type of vehicle. Other lines may be marked out if the range consists of a mockup that is not a permanent fixture. 14. When the AFV is positioned with its front pointing down range, the centre of the hub cap of the second wheel on tracked vehicles, and the centre of the hub cap of the front wheel on wheeled vehicles, must be aligned exactly with the AFV positioning line. MOCKUP 15. Some mockups come complete and the use has only to follow the assembly instructions. 16. A unit may also construct its own mockup. This must be done to scale, with the scale being compatible with the type of apparatus used for the laser. Figure 2-6 indicates the distances for a miniature range. Figure 2-5 Laser Warning Sign Figure 2-6 Leopard C1 Scale Range TARGETS 17. Targets for a miniature laser range may be developed on site, although targets are also available through the supply system. For more information see Chapter 11. 18. Targets bigger than the laser ray are safest. 19. Targets must be mat (non-reflective) and non-inflammable. CHAPTER 3 CLASSIFICATION/SHOOT TO LIVE RANGES SECTION 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. This chapter includes information for planning new "shoot to live" classification ranges or checking the arrangement of existing ones. It includes sufficient data for selecting sites that have optimum utilization potential while meeting established safety standards. 2. Certain specifications are given to help determine the size of the site appropriate for a particular range. They may also be used to check whether installations such as butts have been affected by weather or erosion. 3. Detailed technical specifications for permanent ranges are a CE responsibility and may be obtained on request from NDHQ/DCEDE. SECTION 2 25 METRE OUTDOOR RANGES INTRODUCTION 1. Outdoor ranges have a number of advantages over indoor ranges: natural lighting, wind conditions, minimal construction costs and a high capacity for using mechanical or moving targets. 2. It is possible to use almost any hand-held weapon on a 25 m range. SITE SELECTION 3. If possible the range should face north. 4. An uphill line of sight must be avoided. 5. The ideal site for a 25 m range should provide maximum accessibility and safety and minimal inconvenience resulting from firing practice. TYPES OF RANGE 6. The two main types of 25 m outdoor range are: a. Type 1: Range with no danger area. b. Type 2: Range with a danger area. TYPE 1: RANGE WITH NO DANGER AREA CONSTRUCTION 7. Given the noise caused by a range of this type, it is important that it be situated at least 400 m from residential housing, hospitals and other buildings to avoid complaints about noise of weapon fire. 8. The foregoing are the minimum measures required. It would be worthwhile to increase them, especially when the normal danger area extends into urban areas. 9. Figure 3-1 gives two sectional representations of a 25 m range with no danger area. 10. Subject to the general plan illustrated above, construction details are left to the discretion of CE, who must take into account the peculiarities of the site when selecting materials, etc. DATUM LINE 11. The datum line for all elevations corresponds to the top of the target slot. STOP BUTT WALL 12. As shown in Figure 3-1, the minimum height is 5.5 m. If there is no ricochet pit the height shall be 7.3 m. The length varies with the number of firing points. BULLET CATCHER 13. Bullet catchers have become necessary since most natural stop butts are too hard. 14. The inside of a bullet catcher may be made of clay, sand or any other available material. The outside, on the other hand, must consist of a material that prevents ricochets and backsplash, such as sand mixed with sawdust. Figure 3-1 A 25 Metre Range with no Danger Area 15. The concrete walls of the bullet catcher shall be faced with a minimum 7.5 cm thickness of pressure treated wood with a 5.0 cm air void which will reduce ricochet and backsplash. A length of timber should also be fixed to the bullet catcher base. 16. In winter, when the earth and/or sand are frozen, it may be useful to scrape the bullet catcher to avoid ricochets. TARGET SLOT 17. This should be built immediately in front of the bullet catcher. It should extend approximately 1 m from each end of the bullet catcher. The target slot will have 5 cm wide and 15 cm deep. TARGET TRENCH 18. This is constructed to accommodate snap-shooting apparatus. The length is the same as that of the target slot. RICOCHET PIT 19. This shall slope from the 25 m firing point to the target trench, reaching a depth of 2 m. 20. The surface of the pit should be turfed or covered with sand and free from stones or any other material likely to cause ricochets. 21. The bottom of the pit shall be connected to the target trench by a wooden staircase so that firers can go straight to the targets. Concrete or other materials that may cause ricochets shall be avoided. FIRING POINTS 22. A fire trench is recommended at the 25 m point. This would allow firing in other than the prone position. 23. Each firing position must, as far as possible, be turfed. It must be at least 3 metres long for prone position firing. The distance between firing positions shall be: a. rifle and pistol: 1.5 m; b. LMG: 2.0 m; c. SMG: 3.5 m; d. GPMG: 4.0 m; and e. 84 mm anti-tank guns using 6.5 mm gallery ammunition: 4.0 m. 24. A 2 metre strip shall be levelled up across the ricochet pit for pistol firing. The strip is usually located at the 20 m and 15 m firing points. The front edge of the strip must be the required distance from the targets. WING WALLS 25. Angular wing walls, as depicted in Figure 3-1, shall extend 6.7 m beyond the stop butt. Wing walls shall be covered with 5.0 cm pressure treated wood to reduce ricochet and backsplash. 26. When two 25 m ranges are constructed back to back the wing walls are merely an extension of the stop butt wall. RANGE WITH NATURAL STOP BUTT 27. When a natural stop butt such as a vertical cliff, a sand quarry or a wall with the required dimensions is available, a range can be constructed at little expense. 28. As far as possible this type of range should be equipped with a ricochet pit. In the absence of a ricochet pit the stop butt wall will have to be raised. 29. The height of the stop butt also depends on its slope, as follows: a. When the angle of the slope is not more than 180 mils (10°) from the vertical, the height shall be 6.7 m if there is a ricochet pit and 9.1 m if there is not. See Figure 3-2. b. If the slope is not more than 533 mils (30°) from the vertical, the height shall be 9.1 m with a ricochet pit and 12.2 m without one. POSITION OF TARGETS 30. Careful attention should be paid to the position of the targets. A target slot and a target trench should be provided for all targets in current use. The habit of placing targets at various heights leads to high, poorly directed shots that are directed over the stop butt wall. 31. No target shall be positioned within 1.2 m of either end of the bullet catcher. Figure 3-2 Natural Stop Butt TARGET STORE 32. Unless there is a suitable building close to the range, a sufficiently large space should be provided for storing and repairing targets. TROOP SHELTER 33. Each 25 m range must be provided with a shelter equipped with lighting for the troops. 34. The most suitable location is on one of the flanks behind the firing point. The back of the shelter should face the prevailing wind. It should be closed on all sides except the front so that the troops can see the targets from inside. As far as possible the shelter should not be erected immediately behind the firing point. 35. Tiered seating may be provided inside the shelter so that people can watch the firing in comfort. The seating will also be useful for courses and demonstrations. TYPE 2: RANGE WITH DANGER AREA GENERAL 36. When it is not desired or not possible to construct a complete stop butt as indicated for Type 1, a danger area behind the targets is required. See B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, Chapter 2, for safety requirements and the template. 37, Except with respect to the stop butt and danger area, the principles outlined for the 25 m outdoor range with no danger area apply. 38. If there is non-military land in the danger area, all the affected owners and tenants will have to give their written consent before NDHQ can approve the construction of the range. SITE 39. At the time the range site is selected, make sure that the area contains no buildings or main highways. It is vitally important to know whether there might be people in the danger area during firing practices. Minor roads, pathways, etc, where there is next to no traffic, do not, however, constitute a complete obstacle to construction of a range even though they are not desirable. In such cases sentries would have to be posted to keep watch during firing practices. It might be necessary to interrupt fire to allow pedestrians or vehicles to cross the danger area. In some cases barriers and warning signs are sufficient. STOP BUTT 40. Although a stop butt behind the targets is not absolutely essential, it is nevertheless very desirable. The stop butt should be at least 2 m high and extend 2 m beyond the flank targets. 41. Ricochets are the main source of danger on ranges. It is important, therefore, to make every effort to catch as many bullets as possible with the stop butt. SECTION 3 300-600 OR 1000 METRE STANDARD CLASSIFICATION RANGE GENERAL 1. Standard classification ranges must have 15, 20 or more lanes, and are classified in three types according to their use: a. 300 Metres. This type of range is adequate for the firing of the C1, C7 and C8. To satisfy the requirement of "Shoot to Live", it is necessary to have a start line on the ground at 400 metres from the target. b. 600 Metres. This type of range is necessary for the use of the C2 and C9 when firing beyond 300 metres. c. 1000 Metres. This type of range is required in order to accommodate C3 live firing. 2. The ideal site will be a dry, level piece of ground. Rocky, swampy or uneven ground is difficult to prepare for construction of the range. In addition it is often difficult to use if not dangerous. Another reason to avoid rocky ground is the increased risk of ricochets and the greater cost of constructing the gallery and the stop butt. 3. Damp ground is not suitable because of: a. the risk of flooding after a heavy rainfall; b. construction difficulties; and c. the difficulty of walking on the range. 4. An elevation in the direction of the line of sight tends to increase the number and range of ricochets. It is important, therefore, to know the natural elevation of the line of sight in order to determine the maximum height and distance of the path of a bullet. 5. If possible, the range should be situated facing north. The firers will then be less distracted by the direct rays of the sun and by shadows on the targets. 6. The site chosen for the range should enable a complete danger area to be set up for the 7.62 mm rifle as illustrated in Figure 3-3 and/or for the 5.56 mm as illustrated in Figure 3-4. DETERMINING THE DIMENSIONS OF THE DANGER AREA 7. The following dimensions apply to a level range using 5.56 mm ammunition and a maximum angle of quadrant elevation of 89 mils. B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1 gives the danger area templates for the various categories of ammunition. These templates are annexed to Chapter 2. 8. For this type of range the danger area starts at the most advanced firing point and extends over a distance of 2 400 m from the target line. 9. To calculate the width, first add up the firing lane widths based on a centre-to-centre distance of 4 m between lanes. Table 3-1 (c) gives a width based on the number of firers. 10. To the overall width of the firing lanes we add 200 m on each side for the first 300 metres of the danger area, starting at the most advanced firing point (100 m). See Figure 3-4. From this point we draw a straight line linking up the following points: 1 800 m behind the targets and 350 m outside the firing lanes. For the last 600 m of the danger area the total width outside the firing lanes must be reduced to 250 m. 11. Once the danger area template is established there should be no buildings, roads or pathways in this area. If roads or pathways do cross the danger area it Is imperative that they be closed during firing practices. Figure 3-3 Gallery Range Template, 7.62 mm Figure 3-4 Danger Area Template 5.56 mm Lanes Keyed to 4 Metres Serial Number of Lanes Overall Width at 300 m Line Beyond Most Advances Firing Point Overall Width at 1 800 m from Stop Butt Overall Width at 2 400 from Stop Butt (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1 1 400 700 500 2 2 404 704 504 3 3 408 708 508 4 4 412 712 512 5 5 416 716 516 6 6 420 720 520 7 7 424 724 524 8 8 428 728 528 9 9 432 732 532 10 10 436 736 536 11 11 440 740 540 12 12 444 744 544 13 20 476 776 576 14 100 796 1 096 896 Table 3-1 Dimensions of Danger Area for a 5.56 mm Gallery Type Classification Range ADJOINING RANGES 12. If it is desired to construct two or more ranges on adjoining sites, the area of land required can be reduced considerably by an arrangement whereby their respective lines of fire converge. Example 2 of Figure 3-5 gives a clear representation of the area of land required for making the ranges converge by comparing it with the area taken up by parallel ranges (Example 1 of Figure 3-5). 13. Maximum reduction of the danger area will be achieved if the axis of the two danger area traces are applied to the map during the planning stage in order to determine the positioning of the adjoining ranges so that they use up as little space as possible. Figure 3-5 Danger Areas for Adjoining Ranges 14. A reduction in the space required for the danger area of parallel ranges can be achieved by applying the danger area traces of both ranges and noting which firing points lie outside the trace of the parallel range. If the result is 300 m, for example, an entry may be made in the Range Standing Orders to the effect that firing points used simultaneously on these ranges may be separated by a distance of 300 m. At the planning stage, if parallel ranges are to be set up, these must be positioned with the required distance between them to permit simultaneous use as illustrated in Example 3 of Figure 3-5. REDUCTION IN DANGER AREA 15. A reduction in the size of the danger area may be considered when there is a steep hill immediately behind the targets. If the hill rises vertically, or with not less than a 3:2 slope (angle of 1 000 mils) in relation to the horizontal, to a height of 45 m above the line of sight, no danger area is required beyond that line. 16. If there is a hill or cliff rising to a height of 90 m above the line of sight close to the targets, a danger area behind the hill or cliff is not necessary. It is important, however, to watch ricochets or falling rocks in the case of cliffs situated very close to the top butt. 17. In general a reduction in danger area is not justified if the hill does not meet the above criteria. See Figure 3-6. The value of a hill is usually over-estimated because: a. It is regarded as a natural stop butt for bullets fired too high. People forget about ricochets, however. b. Its height is measured from the horizontal and not the line of sight. This may reduce the effective height considerably. 18. When a reduction in danger area seems justified but does not conform to the standards referred to above, the case must be presented to NDHQ for a decision. Figure 3-6 Line of Sight and Possible Trajectories HOLLOW SITE 19. Hollow sites have certain drawbacks: a. Unless the hollow part of the site is shallow enough to allow a firing point to be set up that provides a level line of sight, the shorter distances will have an uphill line of sight, thus causing an increase in the ricochets' range. b. It is difficult to position the target frames in such a way that the distance between the bottom of the targets and the crest of the mantlet is the same for all firing positions. 20. The problems created by hollow sites are illustrated in Figure 3-7. It is possible to avoid the ones arising at the mantlet and target frames, as indicated in Examples 2 and 3, by lowering the target frames and increasing the length of the target stands, as shown in Example 4. STOP BUTTS 21. A standard classification range should always have a stop butt behind the targets not only to stop the vast number of bullets but to enable the markers to see, with some exactness, where the bullet struck. Strictly speaking, however, this butt would not be necessary in locations where there is a complete danger area. 22. An artificial stop butt is a bank built immediately behind the targets. It is free of stones and other hard materials and meets the following requirements: a. Height. The top of the butt must rise at least 1.2 m above the line of sight in the case of 1.8 m targets regardless of the firing position. See Annex A. b. Length. The length of the crest of the stop butt depends on the number of targets required. It must extend at least 6 m beyond the outer edges of the flank targets. For a 20 target range the length will therefore be approximately 90 m. c. Thickness. The crest line of the stop butt must be level and at least 1.5 m thick. The thickness at the base will depend on the slope. Figure 3-7 Effect of a Hollow Site d. Slope. The slope should be 3:2 (1 000 mils). It must not be less than 1:1 (800 mils). Right-angle brackets may be placed on the slope to preserve it. The slope at the ends of the stop butt may be at the natural angle of repose of the material used. e. Position in Relation to Targets. The distance between the targets and the stop butt can vary with the material used. When the stop butt is made of sand or earth, without stones or pebbles, it may be positioned less than 5 m from the targets. On the other hand, if there is a risk of backsplash, the safety of the markers is also at risk and the distance shall be at least 30 m. It should be noted that when there is a distance of about 30 m, a 25 m range can be set up. It is sometimes helpful, therefore, to install the stop butt 30 m from the targets. It then becomes necessary to build a stand for the targets. f. Bullet Catcher. When the stop butt is made of shingle or some other hard material, a sand bullet catcher must be provided. It should be installed behind the targets as illustrated in Figure 3-8. The bullet catcher serves to prevent backsplash while at the same time facilitating marking. Figure 3-8 Bullet Catcher 23. A natural stop butt is formed by a steep hill situated immediately behind the targets. It may sometimes be necessary to work the ground mechanically to meet the same requirements as those for an artificial stop butt. 24. The area of sand where bullets hit the stop butt must be changed when 100 000 rounds have been shot at the target. TARGET NUMBERS 25. It is customary to number targets from the left. The numbers are placed along the crest of the stop butt in line with the firing position and target. 26. The numbers must be painted at least 1.5 m high on a 2 x 2 m background, as follows: a. Target No. 1: white on black; b. Target No. 2: black on yellow; c. Target No. 3: white on red; d. Target No. 4: same as No. 1; and e. Target No. 5: same as No. 2, etc. GALLERY 27. The following paragraphs explain the requirements for constructing the gallery. Figure 3- 9 shows the type of gallery suitable for classification ranges. The following criteria must be met: a. The gallery must be exactly at right angles to the axis of the range. With certain exceptions it is also important that the gallery and the stop butt be parallel. b. Sufficient protection must be provided to ensure the safety of the markers. c. To facilitate marking the markers should be able to see where the bullets strike the stop butt. d. The lower portion of the target, when raised, shall be clearly visible from all firing positions. See Figure 3-7. e. The roof of the gallery should slope slightly towards the targets (slope 1:12) so as to prevent ricochets from the roof from striking the targets. Figure 3-9 Marker's Gallery (Concrete) 28. When the ground between the farthest firing point and the gallery is level, the latter may be built either above or below ground level. This also applies when there is a slight downward slope to the stop butt. If the line of sight is uphill towards the gallery, thus increasing the ricochet distances, the gallery should be built below ground level unless the nature of the sub-soil or drainage difficulties make it impracticable. 29. A disadvantage of building the gallery below ground level is that a greater number of low shots would ricochet off the ground, whereas with the above-ground gallery they would be caught by the mantlet. A good way of reducing the number of ricochets is to remove the soil between the gallery and the 100 m firing point and use it to form the stop butt. 30. Overhead cover for the markers should be 1.95 m high so that the markers can stand up inside. It should have a depth of 1.1 m and extend the entire length of the gallery. Preferably made of reinforced concrete, it should be 8 cm thick, covered with 15 cm of earth and adequately supported. 31. A small seat for each marker should be fixed to the gallery wall. 32. A space must be provided on or inside the wall of the stop butt for installing one or more telephones. MANTLET 33. The purpose of the mantlet is to provide additional protection for the marker's gallery and reduce the number of ricochets from low shots. It consists of a minimum of 1.5 m of earth over its entire length. See Figure 3-9. 34. The top of the mantlet must not be less than 8 cm below the bottom of the targets when these are in the correct position for firing. It may be necessary to increase this distance if the line of sight is slightly uphill, so that a gap between the target and the mantlet can be seen from all firing positions. See also Figure 3-7. 35. The front slope of the mantlet must be 2:3 (500 mils) from the ground to the top. 36. To ensure that the correct height and width are maintained, the top of the mantlet shall be marked off by means of a vertically positioned piece of timber to prevent the condition illustrated in Figure 3-10, ie, the formation of scoops, which cause ricochets in all directions and create the potential for bullets to penetrate into the gallery. Figure 3-10 Formation of Scoops on Mantlet TARGET FRAME 37. The target frame that best fulfils our needs is the Hythe type, as shown in Figure 3-11. This type is made of steel and comes as a complete unit ready to be installed. 38. The centre of the target frames must be at least 2.1 m away from the gallery wall behind the marker's seat. FIRING POINTS 39. Firing points on classification ranges are at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 m. Some classification ranges have firing points at up to 1 000 m. 40. It is important that the firing points be perpendicular to the centre line of the range. 41. The firing points should be on ground level if possible. Platforms should be used only if the ground is hollow or swampy. 42. Firing points shall conform to the following dimensions: a. Length. This depends on the number of firers which are to be spaced 4 m apart. b. Width. The width should be at least 3 m so that prone position firing is possible. c. Slope. The firing point should have a slope whereby the front is 25 cm higher than the rear. 43. The ground between the firing points and targets must be free from hard surfaces, huge rocks, outcroppings or any other ricochet- or backsplash- inducing surfaces. Any obstacles must be faced with 75 mm of pressure treated wood. 44. Turf provides a good surface for a firing point. Firing positions must be free of any material which might cause ricochets. 45. Pegs should give an accurate indication of the distance between the firing point and the target. They should be painted the same colour as the target number background (see paragraphs 68 and 69). Figure 3-11 Hythe Pattern Target Frame TELEPHONES 46. It is most important to equip the ranges with a suitable and efficient telephone system. In addition to facilitating firing instruction, a good telephone system saves a great deal of time and markedly reduces the risk of accidents. 47. One circuit linking the centre of the firing points to the centre of the gallery is generally sufficient for a range with up to 16 targets even if 12 were the optimum number. It is advisable to add a circuit for each additional 8 targets. An 18-target range, for instance, should have telephones opposite targets 6 and 12, thereby providing an even distribution. 48. Telephones should be placed in wooden or metal boxes in locations providing optimal protection from bullets and the weather. 49. In the case of new ranges, the telephone cables should be laid underground. An intercom system for the gallery and/or firing points may also be set up, especially if there is a large number of targets. TARGET STORE AND WORKSHOP 50. If the range has fewer than 12 targets, a single facility can serve as both target store and workshop. If there are more targets it is advisable to have two buildings, one for storing the targets and one for the workshop. 51. The target store and workshop may be located either at one of the ends or in the centre of the gallery as long as proper protection is provided. In some cases the workshop may be outside the danger area - at the entrance to the range, for example. 52. The target store and workshop must be sufficiently large to house all the equipment. The workshop must contain a large horizontal table, a carpenter's bench, cupboards, a telephone line to the gallery, heating and lighting facilities, hydro and water. DANGER FLAGS AND WARNING SIGNS 53. All classification ranges must be provided with the following warning and control flags: a. a 2 x 2 m red warning flag on a 9 m flagstaff in a conspicuous place on or near the stop butt to indicate that the range is in use; b. 1 x 1.25 m red and green command flags. Some should be at one end of the gallery while others should be on portable poles for use on the firing points. Each firing point shall be equipped with a permanent socket; and c. 2 x 2 m red warning flags on flagstaff s erected in locations where the flag described in paragraph 96a above is not visible and where it is considered important to indicate that a firing practice is in progress. 54. In cases where it is considered important to place warning signs on the boundaries of the danger area, the signs are provided by the Supply Section. 55. The responsibility for deciding where the above-mentioned flags and warning signs are to be placed rests with the Board of Officers responsible for the range, or, where there is no such board, the Command, Base Commander or any other senior officer responsible for the range. 56. Further details on flags and signs are given in Chapter 11 and in B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, Chapter 1, Section 3. TROOP SHELTER 57. All classification ranges must include a troop shelter. The shelter should be in an appropriate location outside the danger area. It should be equipped with fixed bench seating and have heating and lighting facilities. LATRINE FACILITIES 58. Latrine facilities comprising toilets and drinking water should be provided on all ranges. Sinks should be included where possible. Figure 3-12 Mechanical Target REMOTE CONTROL TARGETS 59. It is possible to adapt gallery ranges to include permanent remote control targets without major changes being necessary. 60. Figure 3-12 shows a method of modifying a gallery range to include remote control targets. The existing mantlet has to be extended and a ditch has to be dug for the target on top. The ditch has to be provided with cement base. A drainage system must be included and overhead protection should be added. 61. Since the purpose of this chapter was not to discuss remote control targets, the preceding example is meant only as an indication that they exist. When it comes to building new ranges, on the other hand, it is advisable to keep in mind the possibility of having remote control targets some time in the future. SECTION 4 NON-STANDARD CLASSIFICATION RANGES AUSTERE RANGE 1. The austere range differs from the standard range in terms of lower cost, the temporary status and the simplicity of installation. On some austere ranges there are only firing points and slot targets. 2. The stop butt is not absolutely necessary because the field firing template is used but it is preferred to reduce the possibility of ricochets and to help instructors to determine where the round strikes the target. RANGE WITH DEFLECTORS 3. Where it is not possible to have a full danger area, a range with deflectors can be considered as a classification range. This type of range, normally 300 metres, is recommended in terms of purchase or lease of the land but the savings are negligible because of the high cost of construction. 4. The deflectors must be installed above the firers to ensure that a high shot cannot reach further than the stop butt. The deflectors must be faced to ensure that ricochets are not possible. An earth or concrete wall must be erected and protected, if applicable, on each side of the range. See Figure 3-13. Figure 3-13 300 m Range with Deflectors 5. The firing positions and the facilities on this type of range are similar to the ones on standard classification ranges. Because the range is in a closed area, it is suitable to have pop up targets, which will eliminate the necessity of the stop butt. SECTION 5 INDIVIDUAL TEAM BATTLE SHOOTING RANGE GENERAL 1. Unlike gallery ranges, these have no precise construction specifications. This means that every base unit is free to set up an individual/team battle shooting range that is completely different from any other. 2. Since the aim is to be realistic, sound effects such as battle noises may be added. 3. These ranges are not built to be permanent. On the other hand, all the installations are not necessarily moved around with every new firing practice. 4. In addition to realism, these types of fire should serve to evaluate a serviceman's potential for determining and selecting targets. SITE 5. The ground should be relatively flat and well drained. As far as possible it should be free from stones and other materials that might cause ricochets. 6. As far as possible the ground should be left in its natural state so that it looks like a battle ground containing obstacles, trenches, etc. 7. The range should be 350 m long with 25-metre wide lanes. Pegs, a wire or some other expedient may be used to mark the boundaries of these lanes. Figure 3-14 gives an indication of such a range. Figure 3-14 Team Battle Shooting Range 8. The required danger area varies according to the maximum angle of sight used by each of the firers. The template used is the template applicable to field firing. Chapter 2 of B-GL-304- 003/TS-0A1 gives specifications on firing templates. TARGETS 9. Several different types of target must be used, including both fixed and moving targets. The latter may be radio controlled. Some fixed targets will be hand made. See Chapter 11. 10. It would be expedient to move targets a few metres with every new firing practice in order to increase the challenge and avoid the effects of habit. COMMUNICATION 11. All field firing ranges must have a radio or telephone communication system. The communication plan should permit the OIC Exercise to be in communication with all personnel under his or her responsibility. 12. The wire for telephone communication should be laid underground when possible. CONTROL TOWER 13. The OIC Exercise and the RSO must have a full view of the range. A control tower or at least a control point must be sited behind the firing area. ANNEX A, CHAPTER 3 ANNEX A IMPORTANT SAFETY AND CONSTRUCTION DIMENSIONS STANDARD CLASSIFICATION RANGE ANNEX A, CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 GRENADE RANGE LIVE GRENADE RANGE 1. A 300 m radius around the throwing bay must be clearly identified as the danger area as indicated in B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, Chapter 2. 2. This danger area may be demarcated by means of a fence when appropriate. Danger warnings and flags should be put up in suitable places to indicate that the range is in operation. THROWING BAY 3. The throwing bay should be built of brick or cement as shown in Figure 4-1. CE is responsible for construction standards. 4. A control tower must be built on all live grenade ranges. This allows the OIC to see where the grenades fall. 5. As shown in Figure 4-1, there should be an assembly and/or dispersal shelter, a preparation bay and a throwing bay proper in addition to the control tower. The figure contains a double model. 6. One of the rooms may be used as an instruction room, and a special window may be installed to allow spectators to see the action of the grenades. 7. All front walls above the throwing bay shall be covered by pressure treated wood to reduce ricochets into the throwing bays or observation areas. COMMUNICATIONS 8. A good communication system is essential for allowing the fire officer to be in continuous contact with the various shelters and bays. MAINTENANCE 9. At the completion of the firing exercise, holes in the impact areas must be filled in with sand or soil available outside the impact area. No digging in the impact area is to be allowed. 10. Snow removal on the impact area should be done by base engineers using a vehicle which provides protection to the operator. Figure 4-1 Grenade Throwing Bay CHAPTER 5 GPMG/HMG RANGES GENERAL 1. Although the general purpose machine gun can be used on a gallery range during zeroing, its full potential is not utilized in this way. 2. General purpose and heavy machine guns are ordinarily used on field firing ranges. Since these ranges can accommodate the machine guns' effective range and arc of fire they provide a much better opportunity for fully utilizing the guns. 3. Ideally the same range should be able to accommodate both types of machine gun. SITE 4. When a site is chosen, the range of the weapons should be taken into account. The possible firing points should therefore be planned in advance. From these points it must be possible to engage targets corresponding to the maximum effective range of the weapons. 5. When movements with vehicles are planned one must be sure that the ground is solid enough to support manoeuvres over a long period. 6. The type of site chosen should also be suitable for practices similar to live combat situations. CONTROL POSTS 7. The RSO must take up an ideal position from where he or she can see and control all the firing positions and targets. Sometimes a control tower becomes necessary. This tower consists of a covered raised platform. Certain other arrangements may be considered. RANGE SIGNS 8. Signs to indicate firing practice must be placed at all locations considered appropriate. In certain cases barriers and/or fences must be erected to prevent access to the range. 9. Poles must be installed at the control point or control tower and at all other locations where this is considered necessary for safety reasons. 10. Additional information on signs, poles and flags may be found in Chapter 11 of this volume and in B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, Chapter 1, articles 116, 117 and 118. SHELTER AND TARGET STORE 11. Depending on the custom at the range it may be found necessary to build a shelter for personnel in addition to latrine facilities. The same applies to the construction of a target store and/or repair shop. 12. These facilities should be located outside the danger area and a reasonable distance away from the firing points. TYPES OF RANGE 13. Machine gun ranges may be divided into two types according to the firing position: a. with stationary firing positions, where weapons may be either tripod- or vehicle- mounted; and b. with mobile firing positions, where vehicles are used for fire and movement. TYPE A: STATIONARY POSITION FIRING POSITIONS 14. When the machine gun is mounted on a tripod it is desirable that each firing position have a regular trench or at least a rudimentary trench, built as indicated in Figures 5-1 and 5-2 below. These trenches should preferably be permanent. 15. Targets, whether they are moving or not, may be engaged from a machine gun mounted on a tripod on the ground or mounted on a stationary vehicle. 16. The distance between firing positions shall be 4 m for GPMGs and 12 m for HMGs. DANGER AREA 17. The templates for GPMG and HMG danger areas, in stationary firing positions, are shown in B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, Chapter 2. 18. If there is an increase in either the number of firers, stationary targets or moving targets the dimensions must be altered accordingly. Figure 5-1 Rudimentary Machine Gun Trench Figure 5-2 Machine Gun Trench ARCS OF FIRE 19. The arcs of fire are marked out by arc of fire markers. These markers should be placed no more than 1 000 m away so that they can be clearly seen by all concerned and there is no confusion. Specifications for these markers are given in Chapter 11. 20. Each firing position should have its own arcs of fire within the arc of fire markers on the range. These arcs may be natural or artificial ground marks. 21. On permanent ranges, arc of fire boundaries are ordinarily also expressed in degrees or mils in relation to the firing point. TYPE B: MOBILE POSITION USING VEHICLES SITE 22. When vehicles are performing fire and movement manoeuvres, the area should be clearly identified so that the vehicles do not cross its boundaries. DANGER AREA 23. The danger area templates for GPMG or HMG fire from a mobile position are shown in Chapter 2 of B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1. 24. The danger area increases in proportion to the arc of fire and firing position of each vehicle. ARCS OF FIRE 25. Besides the information in paragraphs 19 and 21, it should be noted that there may be more than one arc of fire marker for every arc of fire. A second or third marker may be necessary when the distance is too long for a single marker or when the lie of the ground prevents personnel from seeing the arc of fire marker from certain positions. 26. When there is more than one arc of fire marker, the first has one diagonal bar, the second two and so on. When two ranges are adjacent to each other, a marker in the shape of a cross can function as the common arc of fire. Figure 11-6 gives an example of this type of arc of fire marker. CONTROL TOWER 27. For fire and movement training, a control tower should be erected in the most suitable location so that the RSO can follow the progress of the operations in this location. If there is no tower, a control post must be set up. This does not stop the RSO from following the troops during the advance. 28. When the troops are engaged in a battle run a blue and white check flag shall fly below the red flag on the control tower pole. CHAPTER 6 TANK AND ANTI-TANK RANGES SECTION 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. Ranges for anti-tank (A/Tk) weapons and those for AFVs have one major feature in common: both simulate combat situations involving large areas and targets appropriate to these types of weapon. 2. Section 2 of Chapter 2 provides information on miniature ranges. It corresponds to part of the training with A/Tk weapons and AFVs. 3. The main requirements for setting up ranges to be used with standard or practice ammunition for A/Tk weapons are: a. The site must be large enough to meet the safety requirements relating to the firing templates of the weapons used. b. The ground should be sufficiently solid to support the movement of vehicles where training ranges are concerned. c. The tactical position of the targets and their visibility should be sufficient for the crew to be able to engage these targets. 4. It is also necessary to set up obstacles and observation posts in addition to danger signs so that unauthorized personnel remain outside the danger area. In some case a fence and/or barriers may be necessary. SECTION 2 HAND-HELD ANTI-TANK RANGE CHOOSING THE LOCATION 1. Any site with generally flat ground and a standard danger area for the 84 mm rocket launcher may be used as a range. It may also be used to fire M72 rockets and the 21 mm sub- calibre which have a smaller template. 2. When a sub-calibre device is used to fire 6.5 mm ammunition, a standard 15 m indoor or outdoor range is sufficient. 3. On the other hand, when 6.5 mm tracers are used, a gallery type classification range is adequate provided tracers are permitted. FIRING POSITIONS 4. A location corresponding to a real tactical position must be sought. 5. Each firing position consists of a trench or a wall large enough for three persons. The positions must be spaced 12 m apart. Figure 6-1 gives an example of a firing position with TPT. The firing position must be a splinter-proof shelter. This cover must provide the equivalent of at least 50 cm of sand. 6. When HEAT rounds are used, a firing position as illustrated in Figure 6-2 must be built, however very few HEAT rounds will be made available for training. 7. To prevent a shell from striking the ground directly in front of the firer it is advisable to raise the firing position. 8. The ground behind the fire bay must be free of all obstacles and debris over a distance of 30 m and within 800 mils (45°) of each side so that there is protection from backblast. If there are several targets or there is a moving target, the angle must be increased proportionately. In addition, the ground level must drop immediately behind the bay to prevent backblast from being deflected or driven forward. 9. A special bay must be constructed for the firing point officer. It must be located on a flank or between two firing bays so that the officer has the best possible control over fire. DANGER AREA 10. The dimensions for the danger area for the M72 and the 84 mm are laid down in B-GL- 304-003/TS-0A1, Chapter 2. The danger area varies according to the weapon and type of ammunition used. 11. Outdoor arcs of fire must be indicated with arc of fire markers as described in Chapter 11. Figure 6-1 Anti-tank Firing Bay TPT Figure 6-2 Anti-tank Firing Bay HEAT 12. The outer limits of the danger area must be clearly identified by means of danger signs erected in locations considered appropriate. FLAGS 13. Flags must be installed at the entrance to the range, at the firing points, and at all other locations where required for reasons of safety as specified in Chapter 1 of B-GL-304-003/TS- 0A1. The standards for flag pole instruction are set out in Chapter 11 of this volume. TARGETS 14. Where HEAT-T ammunition is used, the target should be made of sufficiently large armour plates; armoured vehicle bodies are all designated for this kind of use. If rockets miss the target, there should be a sufficiently dense screen to activate the fuse mechanism. An earth embankment covered on one side with heavy planking is adequate. This stop butt should be sited approximately 15 meters from the target, 6 meters to either flank and 1.8 m above the top of the target. 15. The target is located at 150 to 300 m on the range, but ideally it should be engaged at not less than 200 m. 16. When practice ammunition is fired, the target should reproduce exactly the movements of a tank. A driver-operated tank, or a good simulator with the same effect, may be used. Chapter 11 gives more detailed explanations of targets. PERSONNEL - AMMUNITION 17. A waiting area for personnel must be provided. Ideally there should be a natural hollow or mound between the firers and the waiting relays. The waiting area should be located on one of the flanks of the firing position, outside the backblast zone and at least 200 m from any targets being used. 18. A heated shelter should be constructed to provide comfort for the troops and to serve as an instruction facility. 19. The ammunition must be protected. A large pit is the minimum requirement. SECTION 3 TOW RANGE GENERAL 1. Any site with reasonably flat ground that can provide an adequate danger area is acceptable for TOW anti-tank missiles. Soft ground is preferable to hard ground. 2. TOW missiles may be fired from any range for standard anti-tank or armoured vehicle weapons that meets the requirements for TOW danger areas. 3. Firing positions must allow firers to follow the missile and target with their eyes at all times. Obstacles must therefore be avoided. 4. A space of at least 9 m between weapons must be observed. DANGER AREA 5. The danger area for the TOW missile is indicated in B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, Chapter 2. 6. The ground behind the weapon must be free from all obstacles and debris over a distance of 75 m and within 800 mils of each side of the line of fire so that protection from backblast is provided. FLAGS 7. As in the case of hand-held anti-tank ranges, the reader is referred to in Chapter 11 of this volume and Chapter 1 of B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1. SITE 8. The site should meet the criteria set out in paragraph 3 above. 9. The range limits should be identified and marked as stipulated in Chapter 1, Section 3 of B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1 and Chapter 11 of this volume. FIRING POSITIONS 10. Firing positions must have solid bases, be weather-proof and be long enough to accommodate the vehicles required for firing. Ideally the vehicles should be spaced 30 m apart. 11. Each firing point must be clearly identified. Figure 6-3a Range with Fixed Firing Position Figure 6-3b Range with Fixed Firing Position 12. Figures 6-3a and 6-3b give examples of a range and fixed firing positions. COMMUNICATIONS 13. Each firing point must have direct communication with the OIC Range. An additional network must be set up for safety. In the case of permanent ranges these systems should also be made permanent. BUNKERS 14. Bunkers resistant to shell fragments and direct hits from weapons of all calibres used should be constructed on permanent ranges. These bunkers are for the personnel controlling the targets. SHELTER 15. A troop shelter should be provided on each of the permanent ranges. It should be able to accommodate 40 persons and serve as a lecture or instruction room. The shelter should be heated, lit and equipped with latrine facilities. STORAGE BUILDING 16. A storage building to protect, construct and repair targets is desirable. Entering and leaving the building with targets must be made easy. ARCS OF FIRE 17. Arcs of fire must mark out the maximum angles of sight. The construction of arcs of fire is explained in Chapter 11. DANGER AREA 18. The danger area required for this type of fire is described in the Appendices to Chapter 2 of B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1. 19. The template for the danger area varies according to the maximum angle of elevation as well as the types of ammunition and targets used. SECTION 4 TANK BATTLE RUN GENERAL 1. In general the principles governing the preceding section also apply to battle runs. 2. Since this type of range involves a considerable outlay in terms of the purchase of equipment and land, maximum use must be made of it. SITE 3. The ground must be dry and solid so that tanks do not get bogged down. 4. The site should also be selected on the basis of the tactics used with the tanks. Slightly undulating ground where targets can be engaged at a distance is desirable. The site chosen should be suitable for camouflage, defile, tactical assaults, a variety of roads, and any other tactical element considered important and achievable. 5. The training area should be long enough and wide enough to allow an armoured squadron to train adequately in it. It must be clearly identified so that there can be no confusion about it. DANGER AREA 6. The danger area is calculated on the basis of the largest angle formed by the arc of fire marker and the most forward point in the training area. Figure 6-4 explains the principle. TARGETS 7. Several types of life-size targets, either fixed or moving, may be used. Additional details on the targets are given in Chapter 11. Since many types of targets are hand-made, the number and position of these targets are limitless. Figure 6-4 Danger Area CHAPTER 7 INDIRECT FIRE RANGE SECTION 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. Indirect fire ranges require little preparation for use. 2. Nevertheless, there are three requirements when setting up this type of range: a. The site selected must be sufficiently large for the danger areas to meet firing requirements. b. On limited size ranges specially developed for mortars, the target must always be visible from the firing point or the control tower. c. One or more locations for observers and fire controllers must be provided. These must be sufficiently elevated to afford a clear view of the impact area. They must also be proofed against all the types of shells fired on the range. 3. Artillery ranges may also be used for mortars that have smaller danger areas. 4. It may be necessary to set up barriers, sentry posts and danger signs on the range to keep unauthorized personnel outside the danger area. 5. The site must not be a fire hazard. 6. As explained in Chapter 1, Section 3, of B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1, all danger area boundaries must be clearly indicated. The various signs to be posted are described in Chapter 11 of this volume. 7. The following should be provided outside the danger area and firing points: a. A troop shelter with heating and lighting. b. Sanitary facilities. c. A dry area for projectiles not used on the firing points (ammo point). SECTION 2 60 MM MORTAR GROUND 1. The range should be at least 1 500 m square. 2. Arc markers must be set up about 300 m in front of the firing positions. See Chapter 11. DANGER AREA 3. The danger area for the 60 mm mortar is indicated in Chapter 2 of B-GL-304-003/TS- 0A1. 4. The safety area extends 300 m behind the firing position. Allowance must be made for this fact in the selection of rest areas and other sites specified in paragraph 7. FIRING POINT 5. The mortars must be spaced at least 20 m apart. 6. A low wall of sandbags, or any other shelter to protect personnel from sudden explosions, must be provided. The wall must be situated very close to the firing points. SECTION 3 81 MM MORTAR GENERAL 1. The references to ground and firing points in the preceding section on the 60 mm mortar also apply to the 81 mm mortar. 2. One or more observation posts (OPs) may be necessary. The observer must be able to order a correction of fire from his or her position, as shown in Figure 7-1. DANGER AREA 3. The danger area template varies considerably according to the type of ammunition and the number of charges used. Chapter 2 of B-GL-304-003/TS-0A1 shows these templates. Figure 7-1 A Good OP SECTION 4 120 MM MORTAR 1. To be published later. SECTION 5 14.5 MM ARTILLERY AND 25 MM MORTAR TRAINER RANGES GENERAL 1. Since the range of these weapons is limited and there is no RSO for firing practice with them, it is mandatory that the target area be completely visible from the firing position and/or the OP. 2. Overhead firing is permitted only if the OP is covered with 50 cm of earth or is adequately protected in some other way. 3. A flagpole must be erected in the most advantageous position possible in the range area so that a 2 m square flag can be hoisted when the range is in operation. 4. All range boundaries must be marked as indicated in Chapter 1, Section 3, of B-GL-304- 003/TS-0A1 and Chapter 11 of this volume. CONSTRUCTION 5. A site at least 1 000 m square should be selected. The whole site must be developed according to a scale of 1:10, ie, obstacles, variations in level, surface irregularities and buildings must be to scale. See Figure 7-2. 6. Once the site has been prepared, a map of the area has to be produced to a scale of 1:50 000 m as follows: a. Establish reference points on the ground. b. Establish co-ordinates for the map. c. Plot the reference points on a sheet of paper gridded to a scale of 1:50 000. d. Fill in the details, including contour lines. 7. A permanent building for storing equipment should be constructed near the firing points. Part of the building may also be used as a troop shelter. 8. OPs may be set up. It is important that communication can be easily established between the OPs and firing points. 9. One or more OPs may be located around the perimeter of the range or within the range boundaries. All OP locations must be known in relation to the grid for the range. FIRING POSITIONS 10. Firing positions may be selected for firing into the range area from any direction, provided the location selected is on the same grid as is the range. 11. The location of the firing positions should provide the GPO with a good view of the range so that he or she can ensure that no one enters the range. DANGER AREA 12. The danger area for the 14.5 mm shell is indicated in an appendix to Chapter 2 of B-GL- 304-003/TS-0A1.