Electron has electric and magnetic field in right
angle regardless of any kind of its motions
Structure of an atom www.physics-edu.org
Charged particles like electron and proton have a standing- electric field and magnetic field in
right angle. The neutron has only a standing-magnetic field (see. fig).
Evidences for the right angle relationship between
electric and magnetic field of charged particles
1) Flow of electrons in a conductor is caused by the attraction between electric
fields of ‘mobile’ electrons and ‘fixed’ positive charges and this flow creates a
magnetic field that is perpendicular to the direction of the current.
2) Magnetic resistance: - When the applied magnetic field is perpendicular the
current, the magnetic resistance will be maximum.
3) When a charged particle moves through a magnetic field, it feels a force that
is at right angle to the velocity of the charged particle.
4) Since the electric fields of atomic electrons are always directed to the
nucleus, the magnetic field created by electrons in an atom is an evidence for
the right angle relationship (see electron configuration in atoms).
5) Hall effect (the Hall effect refers to the potential difference (Hall voltage) on
the opposite sides of an electrical conductor through which an electric current is
flowing, created by a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the current).
6) Lorentz Force (moving charges experience a force when a magnetic field is
present that is not parallel to their motion).
7) Stewart-Tolman effect & Barnett effect
Stewart-Tolman effect:-In a conducting body undergoing accelerating motion,
inertia causes the electrons in the body to "lag" behind the overall motion. In the
case of linear acceleration, negative charge accumulates at the end of the body;
while for rotation the negative charge accumulates at the outer rim.
Barnett effect: - The magnetization of a ferromagnetic body when spun on