<p>A. M. Turing (1950) Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Mind 49: 433-460.
COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE
By A. M. Turing
1. The Imitation Game
I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with
definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be
framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is
dangerous, If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by
examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the
meaning and the answer to the question, "Can machines think?" is to be sought in a
statistical survey such as a Gallup poll. But this is absurd. Instead of attempting such a
definition I shall replace the question by another, which is closely related to it and is
expressed in relatively unambiguous words.
The new form of the problem can be described in terms of a game which we call the
'imitation game." It is played with three people, a man (A), a woman (B), and an
interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The interrogator stays in a room apart front the
other two. The object of the game for the interrogator is to determine which of the other
two is the man and which is the woman. He knows them by labels X and Y, and at the
end of the game he says either "X is A and Y is B" or "X is B and Y is A." The
interrogator is allowed to put questions to A and B thus:
C: Will X please tell me the length of his or her hair?
Now suppose X is actually A, then A must answer. It is A's object in the game to try and
cause C to make the wrong identification. His answer might therefore be:
"My hair is shingled, and the longest strands are about nine inches long."
In order that tones of voice may not help the interrogator the answers should be written,
or better still, typewritten. The ideal arrangement is to have a teleprinter communicating
between the two rooms. Alternatively the question and answers can be repeated by an