The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a trade agreement among twelve Pacific Rim countries signed on 4 February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand, after seven years of negotiations, which has not entered into force. The 30 chapters of the TPP Agreement concern many matters of public policy and a stated goal to "promote economic growth; support the creation and retention of jobs; enhance innovation, productivity and competitiveness; raise living standards; reduce poverty in our countries; and promote transparency, good governance, and enhanced labor and environmental protections." Among other things, the Agreement contains measures to lower trade barriers such as tariffs, and establish an investor-state dispute settlement mechanism (but states can opt out from tobacco-related measures). The United States government has considered the TPP as the companion agreement to the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), a broadly similar agreement between the United States and the European Union.
Historically, the TPP is an expansion of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPSEP or P4), which was signed by Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore in 2005. Beginning in 2008, additional countries joined the discussion for a broader agreement: Australia, Canada, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, the United States, and Vietnam, bringing the total number of participating countries in the negotiations to twelve. Current trade agreements between participating countries, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, will be reduced to those provisions that do not conflict with the TPP, or that provide greater trade liberalization than the TPP.
Participating nations aimed at completing negotiations in 2012, but contentious issues such as agriculture, intellectual property, and services and investments prolonged negotiations. They finally reached agreement on 5 October 2015. Implementing the TPP has been one of the trade agenda goals of the Obama administration in the US. On 5 October 2015 Canadian prime minister Stephen Harper expected "signatures on the finalized text and deal early in the new year, and ratification over the next two years." A version of the text of the treaty "Subject to Legal Review (...) for Accuracy, Clarity and Consistency" was made public on 5 November 2015, the same day President Obama notified Congress that he intends to sign it.
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RULES OF ORIGIN AND ORIGIN PROCEDURES
Section A: Rules of Origin
Article 3.1: Definitions
For the purposes of this Chapter:
aquaculture means the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs,
crustaceans, other aquatic invertebrates and aquatic plants from seed stock such as
eggs, fry, fingerlings or larvae, by intervention in the rearing or growth processes
to enhance production such as regular stocking, feeding or protection from
fungible goods or materials means goods or materials that are interchangeable
for commercial purposes and whose properties are essentially identical;
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles means those principles recognised
by consensus or with substantial authoritative support in the territory of a Party
with respect to the recording of revenues, expenses, costs, assets and liabilities;
the disclosure of information; and the preparation of financial statements. These
principles may encompass broad guidelines for general application, as well as
detailed standards, practices and procedures;
good means any merchandise, product, article or material;
indirect material means a material used in the production, testing or inspection
of a good but not physically incorporated into the good; or a material used in the
maintenance of buildings or the operation of equipment, associated with the
production of a good, including:
fuel, energy, catalysts and solvents;
equipment, devices and supplies used to test or inspect the good;
gloves, glasses, footwear, clothing, safety equipment and supplies;
tools, dies and moulds;
spare parts and materials used in the maintenance of equipment and
lubricants, greases, compounding materials and other materials
used in production or used to operate equipment and buildings; and
any other material that is not incorporated into the good but the use
of which in the production of the good can reasonably be