In this paper we present the construction of several aggregates of tetrahedra. Each construction is obtained by performing rotations on an initial set of tetrahedra that either (1) contains gaps between adjacent tetrahedra, or (2) exhibits an aperiodic nature. Following this rotation, gaps of the former case are “closed” (in the sense that faces of adjacent tetrahedra are brought into contact to form a “face junction”) while translational and rotational symmetries are obtained in the latter case. In all cases, an angular displacement of β = arccos (3φ − 1) /4 (or a closely related angle), where φ = 1 + √5 /2 is the golden ratio, is observed between faces of a junction. Additionally, the overall number of plane classes defined as the number of distinct facial orientations in the collection of tetrahedra is reduced following the transformation. Finally, we present several “curiosities” involving the structures discussed here with the goal of inspiring the reader’s interest in constructions of this nature and their interesting properties.
Klee Irwin is an author, researcher and entrepreneur who now dedicates the majority of his time to Quantum Gravity Research (QGR), a non-profit research institute that he founded in 2009. The mission of the organization is to discover the geometric first-principles unification of space, time, matter, energy, information, and consciousness.
As the Director of QGR, Klee manages a dedicated team of mathematicians and physicists in developing emergence theory to replace the current disparate and conflicting physics theories. Since 2009, the team has published numerous papers and journal articles analyzing the fundamentals of physics.
Klee is also the founder and owner of Irwin Naturals, an award-winning global natural supplement company providing alternative health and healing products sold in thousands of retailers across the globe including Whole Foods, Vitamin Shoppe, Costco, RiteAid, WalMart, CVS, GNC and many others. Irwin Naturals is a long time supporter of Vitamin Angels, which aims to provide lifesaving vitamins to mothers and children at risk of malnutrition thereby reducing preventable illness, blindness, and death and creating healthier communities.
Outside of his work in physics, Klee is active in supporting students, scientists, educators, and founders in their aim toward discovering solutions to activate positive change in the world. He has supported and invested in a wide range of people, causes and companies including Change.org, Upworthy, Donors Choose, Moon Express, Mayasil, the X PRIZE Foundation, and Singularity University where he is an Associate Founder.