We consider partition functions, in the form of state sums, and associated probabilistic measures for aperiodic substrates described by model sets and their associated tiling spaces. We propose model set tiling spaces as microscopic models for small scales in the context of quantum gravity. Model sets possess special self-similarity properties that allow us to consider implications on large and observable scales from the underlying (non-ergodic) dynamics. In particular we consider the implication of the underlying aperiodic substrate for the well known problem of time in quantum gravity, and propose a correspondence between small and large scales, the so-called ergodic correspondence, that addresses the emergence of matter properties and spacetime structure. In the process we find a possible bound in the mass spectrum of fundamental particles.

About Klee Irwin

Klee Irwin is an author, researcher and entrepreneur who now dedicates the majority of his time to Quantum Gravity Research (QGR), a non-profit research institute that he founded in 2009. The mission of the organization is to discover the geometric first-principles unification of space, time, matter, energy, information, and consciousness.


As the Director of QGR, Klee manages a dedicated team of mathematicians and physicists in developing emergence theory to replace the current disparate and conflicting physics theories. Since 2009, the team has published numerous papers and journal articles analyzing the fundamentals of physics.

Klee is also the founder and owner of Irwin Naturals, an award-winning global natural supplement company providing alternative health and healing products sold in thousands of retailers across the globe including Whole Foods, Vitamin Shoppe, Costco, RiteAid, WalMart, CVS, GNC and many others. Irwin Naturals is a long time supporter of Vitamin Angels, which aims to provide lifesaving vitamins to mothers and children at risk of malnutrition thereby reducing preventable illness, blindness, and death and creating healthier communities.

Outside of his work in physics, Klee is active in supporting students, scientists, educators, and founders in their aim toward discovering solutions to activate positive change in the world.  He has supported and invested in a wide range of people, causes and companies including Change.org, Upworthy, Donors Choose, Moon Express, Mayasil, the X PRIZE Foundation, and Singularity University where he is an Associate Founder.

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